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Knight Letter 


Notes from a Washington Common Room 

by August A. Imholtz, Jr. 

The Spring 1999 meeting of the Lewis Carroll 
Society of North America was held on Saturday, May 8, at 
the College of Preachers on the grounds, or "close," of the 
Washington National Cathedral just about a mile north of 
Georgetown at the intersection of Wisconsin and Massa- 
chusetts Avenues. The gray stone college building, which 
resembles a small Oxford college, is situated just behind 
the north cloister of Washington's magnificent Gothic Ca- 
thedral with its flying buttresses, beautiful vaulting, and 
modern stained glass windows. Construction of the Cathe- 
dral began in 1907 but was not finished until 1990. The 
College of Preachers, now a part of the Protestant Episco- 
pal Foundation of Washington, was founded in 1929 to pro- 
vide a center for continuing education of the Episcopal 
clergy and now serves all denominations interested in the 
study and practice of homiletics. Given Lewis Carroll's pro- 
found interest in preaching, this was an ideal meeting place 
for our society. 

The Cathedral's annual flower mart had been sched- 
uled on the same day as our meeting so the close was full of 
booths selling flowers, plants, and all manner of food - very 
much like what must have routinely occurred around medi- 
eval cathedrals. Through the teeming crowds some 50 or 
more members and guests assembled in the hall of the col- 
lege, a sort of internal attenuated porter's lodge, around the 
noon hour. At 12:30 to the sound of a lunch bell we all 
marched into the refectory with its beamed ceiling, leaded 
glass window, and even a pulpit ensconced on the far wall 
for use in an age not so long ago when reading aloud pro- 
vided spiritual nourishment for the diners. We sat at long 
tables where we enjoyed a delicious cold lunch and animated 
conversation, and at one point I thought I just heard some- 
one reading aloud from the final chapter of Through the 

Promptly at 1:30 we adjourned to the college's 
book-lined common room for our afternoon program. Ms. 
Susan Spaulding welcomed us on behalf of the College of 
Preachers and gave us a very brief account of the history of 
the college and the identity of the episcopal visage above 
the mantelpiece. Then Stephanie Stoffel, president of 
LCSNA, thanked Ms. Spaulding for her careful attention to 
the details of our lunch and meeting, and made a few re- 
marks on the state of the Society. Specifically, Stephanie 
addressed the following points (among others) even though, 
in contrast to our usual course, the meeting of the board, 
scheduled for the next morning, had not taken place: 

The society is in healthy financial shape. 

The next meeting, Fall 1 999, which will be our 25th 
Anniversary gathering, will be held in Toronto in conjunc- 
tion with a meeting of the Canadian Lewis Carroll Society. 
Further details will be found in Stephanie's article, p. 5. 

Publication projects are progressing well. Profes- 
sor Francine Abeles is working hard on the Political Pam- 
phlets volume of our series. Stephanie and August Imholtz 
are preparing a booklet commemorating the first 25 years 

of the Lewis Carroll Society of North America which will 
be distributed as a keepsake at the Toronto meeting and sent 
to members unable to travel to Toronto. We are still seek- 
ing photographs and other memorabilia for this project! 

The fifth Maxine Schaefer Children's Outreach 
program occurred the same morning at the Cleveland Park 
branch of the District of Columbia Public Library with 
Stephanie reading selections from Alice and distributing 
copies of the Books of Wonder edition to all the children 
in attendance. The program was introduced by the late 
Maxine Schaefer's grandson Mickey Salins. 

Stephanie initiated the formal part of the 
afternoon's proceedings by introducing our first speaker, 
long time member, sometime LCSNA Secretary, and dis- 
tinguished teacher, scholar, and theatre director, Dr. 
Genevieve Brunet Smith. In her lecture presentation, en- 
titled "The Dream as a Source of Creation in Lewis Carroll's 
Fantasy Works," passages from the Alice books were read 
with perfect inflection and subtle feeling by young actress 
Nina Meigs, a student at the French School in Washington 
who also performs with Genevieve's French theatre 

Genevieve began with Alice, having forgotten how 
large she had grown, tipping over the jury box with the edge 
of her skirt and thereby tumbling the jurymen (or jury ani- 
mals) onto the heads of those below. This tumultuous event 
reminded Alice of a globe of goldfish she had accidentally 
upset the week before and "with the accident of the gold- 
fish... running in her head,... she had a vague sort of idea 
that they must be collected at once and put back in the jury- 
box or they would die." 

Alice was written 36 years before Sigmund Freud's 
Die Traumdeutung was published; yet Carroll's narrative 
artistry anticipates some of the major aspects of that semi- 
nal work on dream interpretation. Freud, Genevieve contin- 
ued, "divides the stimuli and sources of dreams into four 
categories: external sensory stimuli; internal, or subjective, 
sensory excitations; internal, organic somatic stimuli; and 
psychical sources of stimulation." 

The jurymen-goldfish incident is an example of the 
psychical stimulus, i.e., a slightly traumatic event in the 
dream (the fall of the jury caused by Alice's oversight) su- 
perimposes on her mind the accident of the goldfish deluge 
caused in real life by Alice's clumsiness. The link here be- 
tween the dream and reality is a kind of guilt: in neither 
case does Alice, embarrassed by her awkwardness, want to 
be the cause of death. 

As an example of an externally stimulated dream 
Genevieve cited the pack of cards rising up in the air and 
falling down on Alice: they are the dead leaves fluttering 
down from the tree to awaken the dreaming Alice. Further 
examples show how well Carroll interwove dream and real- 
ity in his narrative. 

Going beyond the fourfold dream causality but not 
beyond Freud himself, our lecturer commented on the cu- 
rious way Carroll seems to have become Alice and even 
lent his heroine the ability to pretend to be two people. The 

text is from Chapter One of AW: 

"Come, there's no use in crying like that!" said 
Alice to herself, rather sharply. "I advise you to 
leave off this minute!" She generally gave her- 
self very good advice (though she seldom fol- 
lowed it), and sometimes she scolded herself so 
severely as to bring tears into her eyes.... for 
this curious child was fond of pretending to be 
two people. 

Here one cannot but think of Charles Dodgson the 
mathematician and Lewis Carroll the storyteller. 

Then returning to the dream worlds, we were asked 
to consider the famous passage relating Alice's sister's 
dream with the injunction to replace the pronouns "she" and 
"her" with "he" and "his" to see that 
Carroll is really dreaming of Alice in 
the present and the future. 

"First, she dreamed about 
little Alice herself: once again, 
the tiny hands were clasped 
upon her knee, and the bright 
eager eyes were looking up 
into hers - she could hear the 
very tones of her voice, and 
see that queer little toss of 
her head to keep back the 
wandering hair that would al- 
ways get into her 
eyes... Lastly, she pictured to 
herself how this same little 
sister of hers would, in the 
aftertime, be herself a grown 
woman; and how she would 
keep, through all her riper 
years, the simple and loving 
heart of her childhood; and how she would 
gather about her other little children, and make 
their eyes bright and eager with many a strange 
tale, perhaps even with the dream of wonder- 
land of long ago; and how she would feel with all 
their simple sorrows, and find a pleasure in all 
their simple joys, remembering her own child- 
life, and the happy summer days." 

And so Genevieve concluded in explication of 
those wonderful periodic sentences: "During the narration 
of the dream, Charles is Alice. But in the last chapter, he is 
the story-teller, with only Alice for an audience. Alice was 
preventing her hair from getting into her eyes, so her eyes 
could be looking eagerly towards him. In Wonderland, and 
in Looking-Glass - if one sees Looking-Glass as an ex- 
tension of Wonderland - Carroll traced in "white stone" an 
eternally young Alice Liddell, whose eyes were continu- 
ally meeting his. In order to realize this artistic deed, he 
chose to make Alice move within a dream." 

Following the conclusion of her paper, Dr. Smith 
and Nina Meigs rearranged the lectern and chair in the cen- 
ter of the room (we were seated in a U-shape very much as 
in some theatres) to improvise a large mushroom. Peter 
Gil, a Washington Equity actor, entered clad in quasi-Turk- 
ish attire to represent the Caterpillar, whom he immediately 
became. Nina played Alice and the two gave us a delightful 
dramatization of the famous interrogation at the hands (or 
feet?) of the Caterpillar. 

That theatrical interlude proved to be a natural segue 
into the topic of our next speaker's presentation. Dr. 
Georgianna Ziegler is the Louis B. Thalheimer Reference 
Librarian at the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington, 
DC. Before coming to the Folger, she taught at the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania and worked in the Rare Book Depart- 
ment of the Van Pelt Library there with Daniel Traister who 
spoke to us the last time we were in 
Philadelphia. Dr. Ziegler's publica- 
tions include a catalog titled 
Shakespeare 's Unruly Women for an 
exhibition at the Folger. The title of 
her lecture was "Alice Reads 
Shakespeare: Charles Dodgson and 
the Girls' Shakespeare Project." 

In 1882 Dodgson began to 
circulate his intention to prepare an 
edition of Shakespeare for girls. This 
was not a wholly new concept. Al- 
though Dodgson's project never 
came to fruition, Dr. Ziegler pre- 
sented extensive background on the 
history of bowdlerized editions of 
Shakespeare in the 19th century and 
the social and educational contexts 
in which those editions were pro- 
duced. Authors had adapted individual 
Shakespeare plays for children as far 
back as 1790. Charles and Mary Lamb's Tales from 
Shakespeare appeared in 1811 and is still in print. In that 
same year the first of four volumes of the Bowdler 
Shakespeare appeared. The work is usually ascribed to Tho- 
mas Bowdler but in fact his sister Henrietta, like Mary Lamb, 
did most of the work. 

Girls in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries 
were encouraged to read Shakespeare both to improve their 
minds and also to help them develop character. In 1 822 the 
Rev. J.R. Pitmas published a Shakespeare in which he ex- 
cluded "immoral language. . .so that taste may be cultivated, 
without offence to delicate and religious feelings." And as 
late as 1876 Henry Cundell edited a Shakespeare collec- 
tion under the title of The Boudoir Shakespeare whose goal 
was "to strip the text of all that might wound a feminine 
sense of delicacy." Clearly the idea was abroad. 

Dr. Ziegler examined other nineteenth century 
girls' own Shakespeare adaptations as character handbooks, 
including those of Mary Cowden Clarke and Anna Jameson, 
with illustrative quotations which we will not here repro- 

duce. Dr. Ziegler's talk, like Dr. Smith's, really deserves to 
be published in full. She concluded by wondering what would 
have happened if Lewis Carroll rather than Charles L. 
Dodgson had let his imagination have free rein with 
Shakespeare's plays. Perhaps he would have written "a pas- 
tiche from Othello, Macbeth, and The Tempest in the form 
of a verse-drama satirizing the Liddells with whom he had 
fallen out. At the end of the piece, the character represent- 
ing Carroll is thrown into the reservoir at Christ Church to 
a take-off on Ariel's song in The Tempest: 

Full fathoms five e'en now he lies, 
Of his bones are segments made. 
Those circles are that were his eyes..." 

And that is not really so farfetched if one recalls 
Carroll's letter to Ellen Terry's sister, Florence, in which 
he took as his text for a parody of textual criticism, 
Shakespeare's line from Twelfth Night "like patience on a 
monument smiling at grief." "This quotation," Dodgson 
wrote and Dr. Ziegler quoted to an uproarious conclusion, 
"is altogether a misprint. Let me explain it to you. The pas- 
sage originally stood: 'They sit like patients on the Monu- 
ment, smiling at Greenwich.'" 

Let us hope we do not have to wait too long to be 
able to smile at the full text of Georgianna Ziegler's essay. 

For the final presentation of the afternoon, 
Stephanie introduced Professor Robert Phillips, the John 
and Rebecca Moores Scholar at the University of Houston, 
where he is also director of the writing program. Professor 
Phillips is the author or editor of more than 30 books but 
his name is best known to us as the editor of the classic 
compendium of Carroll criticism, Aspects of Alice. 

In the title of his talk Prof. Phillips used a figure 
from Sylvie and Bruno: "A Swarm of Bees: Personal Ex- 
periences behind Aspects of Alice". He recounted the twists 
and turns of what began as a labor of love: the compilation 
of an anthology of the best critical writing on the Alice 
books, which were among his wife's favorites. No one at 
that time, 1971, had assembled such a collection (Donald 
Gray's edition accompanied by some critical essays was at 
least a year away.) Although no further justification for put- 
ting together this publication was needed, Prof. Phillips dis- 
covered as he hunted for some of the earlier, more fugitive 
essays that they had been ripped out of their original vol- 
umes at the New York Public Library. 

The responses from authors' whose permission he 
needed to reprint their works or selections therefrom var- 
ied from the charmingly polite (W.H. Auden) to the thor- 
oughly bombastic and unpleasant (Edmund Wilson). Some 
authors from whom he hoped to obtain a newly written es- 
say were, like the myth scholar Joseph Campbell, very in- 
terested but, in the end, unable to comply with the request 
because of competing pressures. To balance the Freudian 
commentary he had already selected for his anthology Prof. 
Phillips turned to his wife, Judith Bloomingdale, for a 
Jungian piece after Campbell declined. 

Finally the book was published with its thirty-nine 
(no reference to the Anglican Articles) essays, reviews, 
poems and lyrics. The Phillipses were living in West Ger- 
many at the time where they welcomed the initial largely 
favorable reviews. And then the swarm of bees appeared in 
the form of a review by John Gardner in the New York Times. 

Gardner called the book "a great quop of inanity". 
Good word, quop, but sorely misused here. [// means 
"throb" - ed] 

From that point the assessment went downhill. He 
said the book made "one feel one has stumbled on a book 
about Alice by The Water Babies". His greatest scorn, how- 
ever, was directed at Professor Phillips' wife's essay. He 
said that she saw Alice as "Christ Our Lord in drag". This 
was as upsetting as it was undeserved. 

When Robert Phillips and Judith Bloomingdale 
went to England they were given a very hard time indeed for 
including the psychoanalytical pieces. If that were not bad 
enough, later in the evening Professor Phillips hazarded the 
suggestion that perhaps the reason Carroll was such a fine 
writer was that he had such a bad stammer. At that point 
Roger Lancelyn Green, a fine writer himself and longtime 
Carroll enthusiast, rose to say "I-I-I ob-ob-b-ob-jjjjj-ec-tttt!" 

Professor Phillips concluded by assuring us that 
all of his encounters with authors, including many who con- 
tributed to Aspects of Alice, were not so fraught with mis- 
understanding. Indeed, many were quite pleasant and the 
friendships thus generated persist to this day. The current 
president of the Lewis Carroll Society, Phillips just learned, 
had taken his Alice book with her on her honeymoon! Will 
there be another Aspects? Professor Phillips teased us with 
the possibility, even if he does call it Furthermore Alice. 

Just as some of the last of us were leaving the Col- 
lege of Preachers after an exhilarating afternoon, a brief 
thundershower, so common in Washington in late Spring, 
roared through the area giving us another chance to see the 
nave of the Cathedral while we sought a moment of refuge. 
A few hours later most of the afternoon's group found their 
way to David Schaefer's home in the woodsy Springbrook 
Forest section of Silver Spring, Maryland, one of the north- 
ern suburbs of Washington, DC. We enjoyed a wonderful 
buffet supper, met his friends and family, and appreciated 
the opportunity to see some of the treasures from the 
Schaefer Lewis Carroll Collection ranging from early for- 
eign language translations to a just recently digitized ver- 
sion of an Alice flipbook. 

The next morning, Sunday the ninth, found the board 
of directors meeting at the home of August and Clare 
Imholtz in Beltsville, Maryland, and then galumphing north- 
east to Columbia (MD) for a midday Mad Tea Party at the 
home of Barbara Mall. Those of us who were there (unfor- 
tunately, not everyone who attended Saturday's events was 
able to join us) are quite grateful to our hostess for making 
that gathering particularly enjoyable, bringing to a close this 
most frabjous weekend! 

Ravings from the Writing Desk 

of Stephanie Stoffel 

I've had Alice and Mr. Dodgson continually on my 
mind this Spring, with some unusual events poking out like 
icebergs from the usual flow of Carrollian activities and 
information. I imagine that most of you watched the NBC 
production of Alice in Wonderland at the end of February 
and have since been fielding comments on it from every- 
one you run into who knows of your interest. I have heard a 
variety of opinions from Carrollians and from "civilians": 
there are those who found some charm in it, those who at 
least enjoyed the special effects, and then others who found 
it jangly and jarring, shallow and disappointing. Certainly, 
there was something there that, given world enough and time, 
could have been worthwhile. [See p. 21 for further discus- 

Contrariwise, I was able to see a very different Alice 
production the following weekend. The Dallas Theater Cen- 
ter had commissioned a new Alice play from a playwright 
they're very excited about, Karen Hartman. A corporate 
sponsor enables them to have an "In Perspective" speaker 
in conjunction with each production, and I was delighted to 
be this year's, and to be able to talk with the audience after 
a Sunday matinee of "Alice: Tales of a Curious Girl". This 
was not a children's play, nor was it so excruciatingly avant- 
garde that there was nothing left of Alice or Carroll, which 
in my experience is the alternative. It was an emotionally 
powerful and thought-provoking journey through the world 
of Alice, essentially following the books but with the aim 
of being about them, not of being them. The scene design 
and acting, including the child playing Alice (Sarah "Squid" 
Lord, age 14), were superlative; the DTC is a major regional 
theater and this was a high-quality undertaking in all re- 
spects. I hope that the play will be widely produced and that 
many of you will be able to see it done, though it will be a 
very different experience each time a new director, designer, 
and cast approaches it. 

Now, as we look to future activities of the LCSNA, 
many thanks to all the members who included a show of 
support for the Maxine Schaefer Children's Outreach Fund 
along with their dues. Not only is the Fund well set up to 
continue its current program of giving books to children 
after our readings twice a year, but we were also able to ask 
ourselves how else the Fund could fulfill its mission of 
reaching children with the words and ideas of Lewis Carroll. 
The LCSNA has been contacted in the past by teachers look- 
ing for materials to guide them in bringing Alice into the 
classroom, and the board has thought it would be nice if we 
could organize the people and the funding to create cur- 
riculum packets to send to teachers. Now, thanks to the 
Maxine Fund and to enthusiastic LCSNA members, this idea 
seems to have reached critical mass. Experienced teachers 
Monica Edinger and Mary Ann Harasymowycz have agreed 
to head a committee to design a series of packets so that we 
can have something to send teachers and can also offer via 
our website. If you have an education background and would 
like to be a part of this exciting means of bringing Lewis 

Carroll into children's lives, please contact Monica 
( or Mary Ann (harasymt@buffalostate. 

Finally, please circle your calendars now for the 
weekend of October 23 and 24! The LCSNA will be hold- 
ing our fall meeting this year in Toronto, as the guests of 
the recently organized Lewis Carroll Society of Canada and 
its founder, Dayna McCausland. It has been almost a decade 
since we were last in Toronto, and unfortunately one thing 
that has changed for us since then is that the distinguished 
Carrollian Joe Brabant of Toronto, who addressed us at the 
Osborne Collection in May of 1990, is no longer with us. 
His collection now resides at the Fisher Library at the Uni- 
versity of Toronto, and we will begin our Saturday there, 
seeing their exhibition of the Brabant Collection which will 
be on public display this Fall. There will also be an exhibit 
catalog available. We will hear about Joe and his Carrollian 
pursuits, as well as having another speaker while we are 
there. After lunch, we will proceed to the Osborne Collec- 
tion to view more Carroll materials and to hear other Cana- 
dian speakers, including illustrator George Walker. 

We will have a Maxine Fund reading on Friday af- 
ternoon and a special dinner and get-together Saturday night. 
On Sunday afternoon a special showing at the Art Gallery 
of Ontario has been arranged for you featuring the Arthur 
Hughes painting "The Lady with the Lilac" [alternatively 
known as "The Lady of the Lilacs" or "Girl with Lilacs"] 
which hung over Dodgson's mantelpiece; along with a look 
at other Pre-Raphaelite works in the context of his interest 
in them. This weekend will also be our celebration of the 
LCSNA's 25th birthday, so expect a special anniversary 
keepsake as well as a gift from our Canadian friends. Many 
people are already hard at work to make this weekend both 
festive and worthwhile, so don't miss this rare opportunity 
to have the considerable treasures of the Canadian Carroll 
world laid out before you. 

Please feel free to contact me with questions, and 
look for your meeting notice and reply form in September. 
When I see you in Toronto, I'll tell you about the distin- 
guished speakers and the exciting program the LCSNA will 
enjoy in New York City in April 2000! 

Losing Their Marbles 

Challenge : Create a "factoid" that relates the 
following people: Lewis Carroll, James 
Joyce, Stan Laurel & Oliver Hardy, and 

Hint: Giacomo Puccini can lead you there. 
Answer on p.21. 

Quest for a Lady 

by Gary Brockman 

It was not for her beauty, as I knew nothing of her 
looks, that I sought her. My interest was engaged solely by 
a fear that she was lost or had fallen into the wrong hands. 

I knew her only as The Lady of the Lilacs, an Arthur 
Hughes painting that (according to Derek Hudson) Lewis 
Carroll had bought from the artist to hang in his rooms. Most 
of Carroll's interesting possessions, I read, had been auc- 
tioned off less than four months after his death. When I 
could find no other mention of the mysterious Lady in my 
modest Carroll shelf, in a raft of books on the Pre- 
Raphaelites or even in the hundreds of picture titles listed 
in a bound dissertation on Victorian garden painting, I wor- 
ried that the Lady had ended in a dustbin or the back parlor 
of one who did not appreciate her past. 

Years of dead ends were ended when I wrote to this 
newsletter, asking about the "lost" painting. Our editor gen- 
tly revealed that the Lady, now called Girl With Lilacs, was 
well known to Carrollians and on display at the Art Gallery 
of Toronto. He suggested that I visit it and I agreed to, never 
anticipating the obstacles that for a time made the Lady 
seem as inaccessible as Wonderland's perfect garden. 

The first problem was that the information about 
its name and location was no longer accurate. Happily, cor- 
respondents to the KL set me straight. Dayna McCausland 
had recently visited the painting, once more a Lady, at the 
Art Gallery of Ontario (AGO). Hugues Lebailly added a valu- 
able history of the painting and its influences, with refer- 
ence to a new catalogue raisonne of Hughes' works. 

My wife and I chose what we thought the most 
Carrollian mode of transportation, but procuring tickets be- 
came surreally impossible. First, Amtrak's agents insisted 
that we leave from New York City, though no train could get 
us there in time to do so. When we proposed an alternate 
route on the "Adirondack", we were told that this direct-to- 
Montreal train had been discontinued. (Later we saw the 
"Adirondack" pulling from a station where the staff assured 
us it had never ceased operation.) When a circuitous route 
was finally approved, Amtrak's computer rejected our credit 
card because our zip code was "invalid." ("Are you sure you 
haven't moved?") It took weeks to persuade Amtrak to over- 
ride its computer. But the "pleasance" of our journey re- 
paid our efforts. 

A stopover in Albany even yielded a Carrollian sur- 
prise. (At least it surprised us.) In the historic St. Peter's 
Church below the State Capitol, where Matthew Arnold once 
praised a Burne-Jones window as the best stained glass in 
America, another window caught our eye by seeming so 
strikingly unbiblical. It shows the Christianized "Three 
Graces" (Faith, Hope and Charity) as glamorous Carole 
Lombard-type women in sprayed-on fondant-colored cos- 
tumes. I didn't immediately note their physical resemblance 
to the statuesque lady representing Hope in Henry Holiday's 
"To Pursue It with Forks and Hope" illustration for "Fit the 
Fourth" in The Hunting of the Snark (1876). But, yes, the 
1884 window came from Holiday's London studio! 

Modern Toronto — that gleaming, humane, poly- 
glot city — delighted us. The Hotel Victoria is not Victo- 
rian in style but has the Carrollian touch of being on Yonge 
Street. AGO is a bright, friendly museum on the edge of 
one of the world's largest Chinatowns. Signage provided the 
last Kafkaesque obstacle to our seeing the nineteenth-cen- 
tury Lady: past the ticket-taker, we faced a puzzling choice 
between routes marked "20th Century" and (as I recall) "Me- 
dieval to 18th Century"! 

Even the guide was startled by the signs when we 
pointed out our dilemma, but she correctly directed us to 
"enter the twentieth century and turn left". I was surprised 
to find the long-sought Lady hung beneath a larger picture 
(meaning one could not see it at above-the-mantel height) 
and to the right of Waterhouse's familiar image of The Lady 
ofShalott at her loom. 

Hughes's naive little panel retains the vivid colors 
Carroll reportedly so loved. It has the "finished" quality 
prized by Ruskinites. Though the dangling purple lilac is 
meticulously natural, Hughes's sometime awkwardness with 
human figures shows in the pictured young woman's mari- 
onette-stiffness, the tilt of her doll-like head, her 
distractingly tiny hands. Yet who could not be touched by 
this work, knowing Carroll's affection for it and its evident 
influence on his own Alice illustrations? 

The catalogue raisonne recommended by Hugues 
Lebailly, Arthur Hughes, His Life and Works by Leonard 
Roberts, was displayed in AGO's bookshop a few paces 
from padded furniture on which I comfortably examined 
every page. To my layman's eye, the Lady could have been 
cut with a razor from Silver and Gold, the larger work (now 
owned by Andrew Lloyd Webber!) from which it appears to 
have been copied, retouched and recolored. 

The Hughes book has other entries of interest: Plate 
93, "In Wonderland"; "Wonderland" (268.2); and "Wonder- 
land" (268.3), in which Hughes depicts a young girl on a 
garden path. 

Three weeks later we made another pilgrimage 
connected with the Lady. We visited Manhattan's Equitable 
Gallery to see "Reflections in a Looking Glass", the rich 
and moving display of photographs by Carroll (including 
one of Charlotte M. Yonge!), as well as rare memorabilia. 
There I gazed on the photographs of Arthur Hughes and his 
family that Carroll shot at George MacDonald's home on 
the very day, more than 135 years ago, that he took posses- 
sion of his no doubt barely dry Lady of the Lilacs. 

The last treasure I saw at the exhibit brought me 
back, with a shiver, to April of 1999, and I knew my sojourn 
into the past was over. Young Charlie Dodgson's handwrit- 
ten The Rectory Magazine was opened (only by chance?) 
to page 60, which contained this unintentionally prescient 
exercise in alliteration: 

"An Austrian army awfully arrayed, 
Boldly by battery besiege Belgrade..." 

Farewell, my Lady. 

"After Alice": Lewis Carroll at the MLA 

by Jan Susina 

"After Alice: Lewis Carroll and Children's Litera- 
ture" was one of the scholarly sessions presented during 
the 1998 Modern Language Association Conference held 
27-30 December in San Francisco. The four-person panel 
was sponsored by the MLA Division on Children's Litera- 
ture, and was one of only thirty sessions out of nearly nine 
hundred which were open to the public. The MLA hosts the 
largest annual international academic conference for fac- 
ulty of departments of literature and foreign languages, and 
attracts nine or ten thousand college and university profes- 
sors for three days of scholarly panels and speakers. 

"After Alice" was organized and moderated by Pro- 
fessor Jan Susina of the English Department of Illinois State 
University, who noted that the one-hundredth anniversary 
of Lewis Carroll's death, 1998, had been an eventful year, 
full of conferences, exhibitions, and scholarly publications. 
He observed that 1932 marked the centenary of Lewis 
Carroll's birth and that year was also celebrated by a series 
of conferences, exhibitions, and scholarly publications, not 
the least being the conference held at Columbia University 
which the eighty-year-old Alice Hargreaves attended. How- 
ever, much was changed in Carrollian scholarship with the 
publication of Roger Green's Diaries of Lewis Carroll, 
1953, which is gradually being supplemented by the (U.K.) 
Lewis Carroll Society's publication of the complete dia- 
ries. With Morton Cohen's The Letters of Lewis Carroll 
(1979) and his Lewis Carroll: A Biography (1995), there 
is now a standard edition of the letters as well as an authori- 
tative biography. 

Other significant aspects of Carroll's career have 
come to light including Helmut Gernsheim's recognition 
of the importance of Lewis Carroll's photography of chil- 
dren in Lewis Carroll, Photographer (1949), and the re- 
covery and publication of the nude photographs in Lewis 
Carroll, Photographer of Children: Four Nude Studies 

The hundredth anniversary of Carroll's death is an 
appropriate point to evaluate, or perhaps re-examine 
Carroll's place in the history of children's literature. Harvey 
Darton's Children's Books in England (1932), which was 
published during the centenary year of Carroll's birth, 
claimed that Carroll, "changed the whole cast of children's 
literature." The four speakers in the MLA panel explored 
the ways that the Alice books continue to influence children's 
literature and the contemporary concepts of childhood. They 
also examined how the biographical and critical analysis of 
Carroll and his children's books since 1932 have changed 
the meaning of the Alice books. The panel discussed whether 
the Alice books can still be read as children's texts. 

Professor Sandra Beckett, of the French Depart- 
ment of Brock University in Canada, discussed "Alice's 
Adventures in Many Lands: Alice and Intertextual Play in 
International Contemporary Children's Literature" which 
was a section of her forthcoming book. Using slides to il- 
lustrate her presentation, Beckett argued that the Alice books 

are still very much children's literature in many countries 
and that many international children's authors frequently 
borrow from them. Among the examples that Beckett dis- 
cussed were Miquel Obiols' Spanish picture book Libro des 
las M'Alicias ("Book of M'Alice", 1990), the French-Ca- 
nadian Clement Fontaine's Merveilles au pays d' Alice 
("Wonders in Aliceland", 1994), and the French Jean-Olivier 
Heron's Le Voyage d' Alice ou comment son nes Droits de 
L'Enfant ("Alice's Voyage, or How Children's Rights Were 
Born", 1990). 

Professor U.C. Knoepflmacher, of the English 
department of Princeton University and author of Ventures 
Into Childland: Victorians, Fairy Tales, and Femininity 
(1998) and co-editor of Forbidden Journeys: Fairy Tales 
and Fantasies by Victorian Women Writers (1993), gave 
the presentation "Maurice in Wonderland, and What He 
Found There." Knoepflmacher examined the visual ways that 
the noted American picture book author and illustrator 
Maurice Sendak has drawn inspiration from the Alice books 
beginning with his twelve pen-and-ink cartoon sequence that 
he drew in 1957 while listening to Deems Taylor's "Through 
the Looking-Glass", which was subsequently published by 
the Rosenbach Foundation in Fantasy Sketches (\910). 
Knoepflmacher interpreted Jennie, the dog heroine of 
Higglety Pigglety Pop! (1967), as Sendak's dream-child 
muse, who functions in much the same role as did Alice for 
Carroll. Knoepflmacher noted that the final drawing in 
Sendak's picture book echoes the details of the photograph 
of Alice Liddell that Carroll pasted on the final page of Un- 

The most provocative presentation, "Bitter Nos- 
talgia: Alice, Jon-Benet, The Inner Child, and You," was 
given by Professor James Kincaid, of the English depart- 
ment of the University of Southern California. Kincaid is 
the author of Child-Loving: The Erotic Child and Victo- 
rian Literature (1994) and Erotic Innocence: The Culture 
of Child Molesting (1998) from which some of his pre- 
sentation was drawn. Kincaid argued that the Alice books 
are not so much literature about childhood, but an aspect of 
childhood itself and that they have become a key element 
to understanding the cultural construction of childhood. The 
Alice books put the child on display and show the reader 
how to view the child. Carroll's own erotic attachment to 
Alice was not extraneous, but central to the writing of the 
books and to the subsequent reading of the novels. For 
Kincaid, the Alice books are a part of what the philosopher 
Richard Mohr has called the "pedophilia of everyday life," 
which is the erotic desire that marks the pious/pornographic 
discourse on the child. The distinction between Alice and 
Jon-Benet is the distance between nineteenth and twentieth 
century concepts of childhood. The contemporary child has 
become the product of adult eroticism turned hysterical, 
that sees little distinction between loving and murdering a 
child. Unlike Alice, the contemporary child is little more 
than a child-in-need-of-protection whose very helplessness 
justifies the existence of adult protection. Carroll's photo- 
graphs of children, rather than suggesting pedophilia, actu- 

ally allowed children like Alice Liddell to express their own 
eroticism rather than attempting to impose adult eroticism 
onto them. While Jon-Benet is viewed only as a helpless 
victim, Alice is given substance and self-will which run 
counter to the current cultural role assigned to children. 

Professor Feroza Jussawalla, of the English depart- 
ment of the University of Texas at El Paso, gave the final 
presentation "Alice as (M)Other of Postcolonial 
BildungsromarT which examined both Carroll's contradic- 
tory attitudes to colonialism as well as the manner that the 
Alice books lay a pattern for subsequent postcolonial nov- 
els. Much of Jussawalla's presentation was based on her 
research done at Christ Church College, Oxford, during the 
Carroll centenary year and her subsequent reading of the 
Carroll diaries in the British Library. Jussawalla sees Alice 
in Wonderland as one of the first children's books to con- 
sciously experiment with the English language, breaking and 
changing language as well as questioning the Englishness 
of the colonial pursuit of the "antipathies," if not the fur- 
ther reaches of the British Empire. 

"After Alice" was well attended by approximately 
eighty people who participated in a lively question-and-an- 
swer period after the presentations. As did the King of 
Hearts, each of the four speakers found a great deal of 
meaning in the Alice books, although what exactly consti- 
tuted that meaning seemed to be very open to academic de- 
bate. What was abundantly clear is that Lewis Carroll and 
the Alice books remain central to contemporary children's 
literature, the concepts of childhood, and literary studies. 

"How doth the little crocodile 

Improve his shining tail, 
And pour the waters of the Nile 

On every golden scale! 

How cheerfully he seems to grin, 

How neatly spreads his claws, 

And welcomes little fishes in 

With gently smiling jaws!" 

Quam docte caudam, tener o crocodile, nitentem 
Amne Paraetonio perluis usque tuam! 

Quanta vi laticis purgas haec aurea membra, 

Tergaque Niliaco squamea fonte rigas! 

Quam laeto rictu malas aperire videris, 

Ungues quam blanda porrigis arte tuos, 

Duke renidenti pisces dum perfidus ore, 

Funeris immemores, illaqueare paras! 

This translation into sparkling Latin couplets was 
composed by Professor Herbert H. Huxley and was 
first published in 1969. It is reprinted here with the 
author's permission. Professor Huxley, who is now 
in his early 80's, has composed over 500 Latin 
poems and may translate some more of Carroll's 
verses into his exquisite Latin. ~ August Imholtz 

Pursue it with Forks and Hope 

[William Kaufmann, publisher of a brilliant edition of The 
Hunting of the Snark, recently contacted the Society with 
a magnanimous offer. The sumptous" Subscribers Edi- 
tion", originally selling for $400, is being made avail- 
able to LCSNA members for $75. Please avail yourself of 
the opportunity by using the handy order form on the back 

The following review appeared in Fine Print: A Review 
for the Arts of the Book, Vol. 8 No. 4, Oct. 1982.] 

Carroll, Lewis. . . The Hunting of the Snark. Edited by James 
Tanis and John Dooley. Includes a reprint of The Annotated 
Snark by Martin Gardner, "The Designs for the Snark," an 
essay by Charles Mitchell; and "The Listing of the Snark," a 
bibliography of Snark editions by Selwyn Goodacre. Illus- 
trated with reproductions of the 9 wood engravings by Henry 
Holiday from the original edition (1876) plus 44 plates re- 
producing Holiday's original drawings for the illustrations, 
early proofs of the blocks, the original cover, etc. Los Al- 
tos, California: William Kaufmann, 1981. 28 x 22 cm, 129 
pp. Designed by Roderick Stinehour and printed letterpress 
by Stinehour Press; plates printed offset by Meriden Gra- 
vure. Subscribers' edition, 350 copies, bound in red mo- 
rocco spine and linen sides; in slipcase with portfolio of 
extra suite of prints; signed by authors and printer, $395. 
Collectors' edition, 1995 copies unsigned, bound in red 
cloth with leather spine label, $60. Trade edition, offset 
printed, includes facsimile reprint of the first edition, cloth, 

"The thing can be done," said the Butcher, "I think. 

The thing must be done, I am sure. 
The thing shall be done ! Bring me paper and ink, 

The best there is time to procure." 

A bit late for the centennial of the publication of 
The Hunting of the Snark (1876), but just in time to mark 
the sesquicentennial of the birth of Charles Lutwidge 
Dodgson ( 1 832), William Kaufmann has taken the Butcher's 
advice and produced an elegant edition of Carroll's third 
great masterwork, a poem that shares with the Alice books a 
lilting humor but that carries a grimly unsettling narrative 
with deep thematic and structural affinities to Melville's 
Moby Dick. 

The inspiration for this "nonsensical" odyssey of 
dreams, death, being, time, quest, and purpose came to 
Carroll during a solitary walk across the Surrey Downs in 
July 1874. Typically, it was the last line of the poem, the 
immortal "For the Snark was a Boojum, you see," which 
came to him first, a looking-glass method of composition 
shared with Poe in The Raven and common in mystery sto- 
ries. The two years that elapsed between that walk and the 
actual publication were not without difficulties, as Carroll 
negotiated unconventional financial arrangements with the 
brothers Macmillan, his publishers, and made his choice of 
the unheralded and eccentric genius of Henry Holiday to 
illustrate the eight "fits." 

Henry Holiday was an enigma. Trained as a sculp- 
tor and painter, an intimate of the Pre-Raphaelites and Wil- 
liam Morris, he is remembered today for his many designs 
in stained glass still standing in churches in both England 
and America. The Snark was his first foray into woodblock 
illustration, and for it he kept himself thoroughly aware of 
the procedures of commercial engravers and used as ex- 
amples the engravings of Thomas Bewick, "in which the 
objects are drawn with light instead of being drawn with 
darkness. Bewick discovered the true powers of the 
woodblock and gives us for the first time engravings in which 
white is cut out of the black, and where we find no attempt 
to force the material into the unnatural imitation of cross- 
hatching, or any other mode of execution for which it is 

It seems Carroll chose Holiday as illustrator more 
out of a personal friendship than confidence in his ability 
to draw "grotesques" (although the book Carroll originally 
had in mind for him was Sylvie and Bruno). The eight plates 
out of nine that finally did see print are certainly marvel- 
ously executed, yet have more the appearance of tableaux 
than the animated stylings of Tenniel. 

Carroll, an illustrator himself, had a fortunate tal- 
ent for picking artists. He was known to suggest, to inter- 
vene, and to supervise the drawings, but he always deferred 
to the artist's judgment. Although much of the correspon- 
dence between Carroll and Holiday is lost, the essay in this 
volume "The Designs for the Snark" by Charles Mitchell 
makes it clear that Carroll's relationship with Holiday was 
much smoother than with his other illustrators: John Tenniel 
(the Alice books); Arthur Frost (Rhyme & Reason, Phan- 
tasmagoria, etc.); Harry Furniss (Sylvie & Bruno); and 
Gertrude Thompson (Three Sunsets). 

In this edition, Carroll enthusiasts can, for the first 
time, trace how the illustrations evolved from Holiday's 
original drawings which accompany the edition in a portfo- 
lio. Some interesting facets are revealed: the Baker who 
"with care combed his whiskers and hair" has no whiskers 
and hair in the pictures; the inclusion of one half-nude and 
one hooded female figure among the crew; the inscription 
on a book of the name of the heretical Bishop Colenso; and 
the grotesquely "Semitic" features of the Broker which are 
somewhat toned down in the published version. Holiday's 
finest contribution was surely the incredible trompe I'oeil 
"The Vanishing" in which the branches of trees form the 
features of the Baker and the claw of some monstrous crea- 
ture. His final drawing, of the Boojum itself, which never 
appeared in the original, is reproduced here. While other 
illustrators of the Snark abound (Mervyn Peake, Max Ernst, 
Ralph Steadman, Byron Sewell), Holiday's images are as 
woven into our minds as are TenniePs of Alice. 

The impetus for the issuing of Kaufmann's edition 
came from the discovery of Holiday's original drawings for 
the illustrations which are in the possession of Mrs. Walter 
West, Jr., daughter of the Philadelphia collector George 
Howe. They were donated to Bryn Mawr College where this 
edition was assembled under the editorship of James Tanis 

and John Dooley. The quality of reproduction varies (the 
illustrations in The Annotated Snark being another gen- 
eration away) but is generally excellent; the offset trade 
edition does appear slightly lighter and grayer. 

There are a few unfortunate errata that appear in 
the trade edition only: two plates of drawings are transposed 
with those of block proofs of the same image (XXVI with 
XXXVI); plate XXVIII reproduced as a proof when it should 
be a drawing; three of the facsimile pages are facing the 
wrong way. 

Overall, these volumes are a great joy to Carroll 
lovers. It is a treat to behold the evolution of Holiday 's draw- 
ings and to have in one volume so much scholarship and 
fun. (Gardner's Annotated Snark contains such things as 
the rules for forming Snark Clubs and the wonderfully ir- 
reverent "Commentary on the Snark" [1901] by F. C. S. 
Schiller, a parody of writings that seek the penetralia of 
meaning in humorous works, something Carroll himself was 
at a loss to explain.) The Kaufmann printings are a hand- 
some tribute to that most perplexing epic of the Victorian 
nonsense tradition. 

They sought it with thimbles, they sought it with care; 

They pursued it with forks and hope; 
They threatened its life with a railway-share; 

They charmed it with smiles and soap. 

Mark Burstein 


[from "Jabberwhorl Cronstadt"} 
"...Write about that! About what's inside of you... the 
great vertiginous vertebration... the zoospores and the 
leucocytes... the wamroths and the holenlindens... 
every one's a poem. The jellyfish is a poem too - the 
finest kind of poem. You poke him here, you poke him 
there, he slithers and slathers, he's dithy and clab- 
berous, he has a colon and intestines, he's vermiform 
and ubisquishous. And Mowgli in the garden whistling 
for the rent, he's a poem too, a poem with big ears, a 
wambly bretzular poem with logamundiddy of the 
goo-goo. He has round, auricular daedali, round 
robin-breasted ruches that open up like an open 
barouche. He wambles in the wambhorst whilst the 
whelkin winkles... he wabbles through the wendish 
wikes whirking his worstish wights... Mowgli... 
owgli... whist and wurst..." 

Henry Miller 
Black Spring (1963) 

"'Playing croquet with you,' said Van, 'should be 
rather like using flamingoes and hedgehogs.' 
'Our reading lists do not match,' replied Ada. 'That 
Palace in Wonderland was to me the kind of book 
everybody so often promised me I would adore, that I 
developed an insurmountable prejudice toward it.'" 

Vladimir Nabokov 
Ada or Ardor: a Family Chronicle (1969) 

[Oxford University, circa 1880. All characters are in 

their early twenties.] 

(A. E.) Housman: Da mi basia mille, deinde centum. 

(Alfred W.) Pollard: Catullus! Give me a thousand 

kisses, and then a hundred! Then another thousand, 

then a second hundred! - yes, Catullus is Jackson's 

sort of poet. 

(Moses) Jackson: How does it go? Is it suitable for 

sending to Miss Liddell as my own work? 

Pollard: That depends on which Miss Liddell. Does she 

go dum-di-di? 

Jackson: I very much doubt it. She's the daughter of 

the Dean of Christ Church. 

Pollard: You misunderstand. She has to scan with 

Lesbia. All Catullus's love poems are writen to Lesbia, 

or about her. "Vivamus, mea Lesbia, atque 


Jackson: I mean in English. Girls who kiss don't know 


The Invention of Love 
Tom Stoppard, 1997 

Recycling The Nursery "Alice" 

by August A. Imholtz, Jr. 

With The Nursery "Alice" history repeated itself: 
Carroll was so disappointed with the first printing that he 
wrote to Macmillan's on June 23, 1889: 
It is a great disappointment to me to have to postpone, till 
Xmas, the publication of The Nursery "Alice", but it is 
absolutely necessary. The pictures are far too bright and 
gaudy, and vulgarize the whole thing. None must be sold 
in England: to do so would sacrifice whatever reputation 
I now have for giving the public the best I can. 1 

Macmillan's recommended in a letter that has not 
survived, though it is quoted by Carroll 2 , that he offer the 
gaudy copies to America. Carroll then sent to Roberts 
Brothers three letters on that business prospect, written on 
a typewriter and composed in the third person. [The letters 
are reproduced in their entirety at right.] Neither Anne 
Clark in her Lewis Carroll biography nor Selwyn Goodacre 
in his excellent bibliographical article on The Nursery 
"Alice," which unravels the tangled tale of the publication 
of the work, are able to state precisely why Carroll chose 
Roberts Brothers. Perhaps, as is most likely, they were 
mentioned by name in Macmillan's recommendation. In the 
1880s the Boston firm of Roberts Brothers was a well-es- 
tablished American publisher of children's books. 

The letters themselves were purchased for the Har- 
vard College library by Flora V. Livingston, who in the first 
half of the twentieth century was one of Harvard's foremost 
bibliographers and also the author of the catalog The 
Harcourt Amory Lewis Carroll Collection in the Harvard 
College Library. She says of the letters in a March 10, 
1930, letter to Morris L. Parrish: 

A few weeks ago I bought three letters, written in the 
third person by Dodgson, to Roberts Brothers, about the 
Nursery Alice, and the various issues of the first edi- 
tion. 10,000 copies of the first issue were printed, but 
the colors came out too bright, and Dodgson wanted to 
sell them to the Americans and make a new one for En- 
gland. But the letters are unsigned, as Dodgson often 
did in dictating letters in the third person; but Roberts 
Brothers' notes are on the back, so they are all right. 
However I paid very little for them. 3 

Roberts Brothers presumably preferred their Little 
Women to Carroll's little Alice: they did not take the books. 
I wonder whether Carroll owned a Roberts Bros, copy of 
Little Women! 

1 . Selwyn H. Goodacre. "The Nursery "Alice" A bibliographical 
essay" Jabberwocky. Vol. 4, No. 4. Autumn 1975. p. 102-103. 

2. Carroll's letter to Macmillan of Nov. 4, 1 889. See: Morton N. 
Cohen and Anita Gandolfo. Lewis Carroll and the House of 
Macmillan. (Ca.mbMgz: 1987, Cambridge University Press) p.268. 

3. Flora Livingston's letter, preserved in the Morris L. Parrish 
Collection at Princeton, is quoted courtesy of the Princeton 
University Library. 


29. Bedford Street, 

Covent Garden, 

Sep. 13, 1889 

Mr. Lewis Carrroll presents his compli- 
ments to Messrs Roberts, and begs to call 
their attention to the following statement. 

He intends to publish a book next Xmas 
to be called "The Nursery Alice", a quarto 
of about 50 pages, which will contain twen- 
ty coloured enlargements from Mr.Tenniel's 
illustrations to "Alice's Adventures in' 
Wonderland", with new text, explanatory of 
the pictures, adapted far Nursery readers. 
It will be sold at 4 shillings, & supplied 
to English Booksellers at 3 shillings cash. 

He has had 10,000 copies printed : but 
the colours have come out brighter than he 
likes, & he does not wish to have them sold 
in England, but is printing others. 

The first impression he will be glad to 
sell in America , for which purpose he has 

printed a new titlepage, on which no price 
is named: so that the American Booksellers 
can charge what price they like. 

He is willing to sell them to American 
Booksellers, at 2 shillings and 3 pence a 
copy:but,if any one likes to buy the whole 
10,000, he may have them at 2 shillings. 

In this last event, Mr. Carroll would be 
willing to postpone the issue of the new 
impression till Easter: so that the Booksel- 
ler would have the monopoly of it for six 
months, and could probably sell them so as 
to clear a profit of at least 500 pounds. 

Mr. Carill will send a specimen-copy, 
if it be desired. 

29. Bedford Street, 

Covent Garden, 

London. Oct. 11, 1889. 

Mr. Lewis Carroll is much obliged to Messrs Roberts Brothers for their reply 
dated Sep. 23. A copy shall be mailed as soon as possible. The cover is a pic- 
ture- cover, printed in colours, designed by Miss E.G. Thomson. Only a a few 
copies have been bound, as specimens: so that Messrs Roberts can have their oun 
imprint inserted in any copies they purchase. The sale of copies in Americ will 
probably be quite unaffected by the issue of the ENglish edition, as very few of 
the English copies are likely to find their way out: the purchaser of any such 
would have to pay 3s. 4d. a copy, besides the import-duty. 

Mr. Carroll takes this opportunity of mentioning that he is intending to 
publish a new story-book at Christmas. It will be similar to "Alice's Adven- 
tures in Wonderland", will contain about 320 pages, and will have more than 
40 pictures by Mr. Harry Furniss. He wishes to ascertain what sort of sum is 
obtainabla in America for a set of electrotypes, duplicates of those from 
which it is about to be printed here. The offer might take the form either 
of a certain sum down, or of a certain royalty on each copy sold. . Of course 
only one such set of electrotypes would be sold, so that the purchaser, would 
undoubtedly have the monopoly in permanence as no pirated edition could possibly 
rival the beauty of copies printed from the English electrotypes. The electro- 
types would be sent out in sufficient time to enable the American edition to come 
out at the same time as the English one. 

29. Bedford Street, 

Covent Garden, 

Oct. 29, 1889. 
Mr. Lewis Carroll has at last had the 
pleasure of sending to Messrs Roberts Bros 
a specimen-copy of the 10,000 "Nursery 
Alice" which he wishes to sell in America. 
He intends to publish the English edition 
at Easter: but this will not at all inter- 
fere with the American sale, as he is not 
going to let any copies of it go out there 

at less than 3s. 4d. a copy which will 

make it impossible for any bookseller out 
ther to compete with the sale of the ten 
thousand now offered. His present offer 
is to sell any number of them at 2s. 3d., 
or the whole 10,000 at 2s., in the latter 
case inserting in the title-page the name 
of the bookseller, if desired. 

Editors note: these letters (copyright ©1999 by the 
Trustees of the C.L. Dodgson Estate and reprinted 
with permission) are printed exactly as they appear, 
typos and all. 


Leaves from the Deanery Garden 

Great cover for KL LIX and a good issue overall. On p.2, 
however, your Greek has again gone slightly awry. You have 
printed in Geek letters the Modern Greek form of the first 
person singular indicative active of the verb "to be": el/iai. 
(The only Classical Greek forms of eifiai are the perfect 
passive forms of verbs meaning "to clothe oneself and "to 
send".) Cummings' Eimi, which is Classical Greek, I think, 
would be elpLi. On p. 3, you have confused an "upsilon" - v- 
with a "nu" -v- in the word for eternal, Aicovia. 

August A. Imholtz, Jr. 

/ once again thank you for your erudite corrections, and 
only note that one occasionally does make mistakes, es- 
pecially when dealing with (ipse dixit) "Geek letters ". 

The Knight Letter arrived last night. Thanks very much. Of 
all the journals and newsletters that come to the office and 
home, it's the one I read cover to 
cover, highlighter in hand. All 
else waits when it comes in 

Barbara Felicetti 
Ardmore, PA 

At the American Film Market in 
Santa Monica, I just saw a promo 
reel (basically, an extended 
trailer), for a bizarre upcoming 
Polygram picture called "Being 
John Malkovich", starring John 
Cusack, Cameron Diaz and John 
Malkovich himself. The premise 
is that behind a desk in the back 
corner of an office on the 7 '/2 th 
floor (!) of an office building in 
Manhattan there is a little half- 
size doorway. Upon entering, one 
falls down a dark tunnel into the 
mind of John Malkovich, who 
plays himself in the movie (/. e. , 

he plays an actor named John Malkovich). You inhabit his 
mind and body for 1 5 minutes, I believe, seeing, feeling and 
controlling everything he does. Then, oddly enough, you fall 
out into a ditch beside the Jersey Turnpike. Aspects of this 
are clearly inspired by Alice - the little doorway, the fall 
down the rabbit hole, the surrealistic blurring of layers of 
reality (is John Malkovich merely a character in his own 
dream?). There's even a character called Erroll, though I 
have no idea if he's Carroll-like or not. In any case, the pic- 
ture seems amusing and original. 

Jonathan Handel 
Los Angeles, CA 

I've been getting Civilization, the mag of the Library of 
Congress, which is pretty worthwhile as bathroom reading 
goes. They have started doing their issues with a guest edi- 
tor and a theme, and this month (February/ March 1999) 

it's the contemporary art scene. Normally, a ref to Alice in 
an article is not KL material, but this one was of above aver- 
age interest, especially since we just had Jose de Creeft's 
widow and her video [at our Spring '98 meeting in New 

In an article called "The Perils of Public Art," Joel Shapiro 
is commenting on how little 20th-century sculpture there 
is "standing in a successful relationship with architecture 
and urban space". He says there are exceptions, and names 
three: One Chase Manhattan Plaza on Wall Street, the Henry 
Moore fountain at Lincoln Center, and "Jose de Creeft's 
Alice in Wonderland in Central Park — a huge interpreta- 
tion of the Tenniel illustrations in bronze, polished now by 
the creepings and crawlings of generations of children — 
is a very nice way for kids to learn about form." 

Stephanie Stoffel 

Our different readings of "the same page" of the OED [see 
"Leaves" in KLs 58 & 59] may be 
reconciled by my researches outside 
that dictionary. The etymologies I 
found are vague and speculative, with 
dissonant dates, but I extract this tale 
from them: 

Mad indeed meant "angry" (i.e. 
"vexed" or "furious") in some early 
instances. But another early mean- 
ing - "corrupted" or "crippled" - 
soon dominated in the sense of 
"mentally corrupted or crippled", i.e. 
"insane or foolish" or "as if insane". 
Note that in the definition you 
quoted from the OED, mad means 
not simply "angry" (as we use it 
now), but irrationally and wildly an- 
gry: '"beside oneself with anger; 
moved to uncontrollable rage; furi- 
ous". (In fact, the literal meaning of 
., i : the Hebrew word translated "mad" in 

the 1539 version of Psalm 102.8 you 
cite is, according to a note in the OED, "insane"!) Partridge 
[Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English] says 
that by the 1 800s mad meant only "insane" in England - but 
popped up as an American slang word meaning simply "an- 
gry" in the last half of that century. So I say we're both right! 

Gary Brockman 
Madison CT 

Have you seen the article "Alice in Wonderment" in Art 
News, February 1999? What does Francine Prose mean 
when she writes: "And though she could not have known it, 
another part of the bargain was immortality - so far." So 

Fan Parker 
Rockville Centre, NY 


The Bellman, Rituals of Death and the April Fool 
in The Hunting of the Snark 

by Fernando Soto 

"If — and the thing is wildly possible — the charge of 
writing nonsense were ever brought against the author 
of this brief but instructive poem, it would be based, I 
feel convinced, on the line 'Then the bowsprit got mixed 
with the rudder sometimes:' In view of this painful pos- 
sibility, I will not (as I might) appeal indignantly to my 
other writings as a proof that I am incapable of such a 
deed. . ." - Lewis Carroll, Introduction to The Hunting of the Snark 
"All manner of meaning lurks within these quizzical stan- 
zas, suggestive, tantalizing; and like the Alice books, the 
whole is not really about meaning at all... The poem's 
real meaning, like the meaning of the Alice books, is 
anti-meaning. It is more about being than meaning, lis- 
tening than seeing, feeling than thinking." - Morton Cohen, 

Lewis Carroll: A Biography 

If there is a purpose to this article it is to attempt 
to begin to settle which of the above general statements 
about Carroll's most famous works is correct. Is Carroll or 
are his modern scholars to be believed? It seems to me that 
as the above two confident and general statements directly 
contradict each other; it might prove useful to see who, af- 
ter all, is right. Since proving that something is nonsense or 
"antimeaning" appears to be impossible, I will take Carroll 
at his word and attempt to show a few of the many "sensical" 
parts of The Hunting of the Snark and therefore that Carroll's 
"test" phrase is, in fact, sensible and comprehensible. 

One of the most important characters in Carroll's 
enigmatic poem is the Bellman. While much work has been 
done in an attempt to understand the poem and the role and 
characteristics of the characters within it, little is known 
about the Bellman or other members of the crew. 

I need not remind the reader that disease and death 
are everywhere present in or around Carroll's "Agony" or 
"Eight Fits". Anyone who reads of the importance that the 
events surrounding Charlie Wilcox's consumption and death 
had for the Snark need look no further. 1 On the other hand, 
An Easter Greeting (a small pamphlet included with the 
first editions of the poem), is also full of allusions to death. 2 
The dedicatory poems with which Carroll inscribed the first 
copies given to his friends also abound with similar thinly 
veiled references to disease and death. 3 

In England, prior to the writing of The Hunting of 
the Snark, bellmen played a very important role in ancient 
rituals. There were two important times for the ringing of 
bells: before a person died and immediately after death oc- 
curred. The Origins of Popular Superstitions and Cus- 
toms 4 says: 

"...he rung it, caused it to be rung, before the member 
died; that is, whilst praying for the dead and ringing for 
the dead were practically identical. ..The passing- 
bell... was anciently rung for two purposes: one to be- 
speak the prayers of all good Christians for a soul de- 
parting; the other, to drive away the evil spirits who stood 

at the bed's foot and about the house, ready to seize their 
prey, or at least to molest and terrify the soul in its pas- 
sage: but by the ringing of that bell (for Durandus in- 
forms us that evil spirits are much afraid of bells) they 
were kept aloof; and the soul, like a hunted hare, gained 
the start, or had what is by sportsmen called law." 

Much of the above information appears to be very 
meaningful in explaining parts of Carroll's poem: bell ring- 
ing prior to and after a death, death associated with a maca- 
bre "hunt", bells used to scare off evil spirits, a reference 
to "law", etc. Let us remember the ringing of bells before 
and after the Baker "softly and suddenly vanished away", 
which may be to help the soul of the Baker get a head-start 
by keeping at bay those that were hunting for him, the Snarks 
and Boojums. 

The historical role of the Bellman is further out- 
lined in English Folklore** where it is stated: 

Bellmen were employed to go about the parish at death 
and on the anniversary, asking for prayers for the dead. . . 
In most country parishes, the bell is sounded nine times 
for a man's death and six times for a woman's. . .the say- 
ing "Nine tailors make a man" implies no contempt for 
tailors as such, but refers to the nine "tellers" or strokes 
that mark a man's death. At Ayot St. Peter they keep the 
beautiful custom of ringing the "Nine Tailors" on Good 
Friday and following it with thirty-three strokes for Our 
Lord's age. 

The above number of strokes not only add up to 
Carroll's famous number 42 but it is implied that this was at 
one time a common event in parts of England. 

In The Annotated Snark, Martin Gardner points 
out that there is a growth on the Bellman's nose - in Holiday's 
second picture {The Crew Embarked) - but it disappears in 
the other illustrations. Gardner goes on to suggest that this 
growth is a wart: "Above deck, left to right, are the Bellman 
(with a wart on his nose)..." . I will now attempt to solve the 
puzzles regarding the nature and disappearance of the "wart". 
By referring to the English Dialect Dictionary^ 
under two of the six headings of "Bell", one encounters: 
Bell, v.2 Cor. Of a sore: to throb, be inflamed... 
Bell, sb.2 Sc. Lin. Wor... 2. A small watery blister... 3. 
v. To bubble 

Sc. When the scum turns blue, And the blood bells through, Perils of 
Man, II. 44 (Jam) 

Given these two definitions, the medical quotation 
from Scotland (Perils of Man), and the word's derivation, 
one may begin to account for the growth on the Bellman's 
nose. First, the above information may linguistically account 
for the inflamed blister or wart on the Bellman's nose and 
for its disappearance when it finally broke and healed. The 
word "Bellman", in this case, could be translated as denot- 
ing "a man with a 'bell' or blister". Second, this reading once 
again reinforces the idea that there are numerous medical 
references to disease within the "Agony". 

Carroll's puzzle ("Then the bowsprit got mixed with 
the nidder sometimes"), however, need not stop there, par- 


ticularly if one considers that a Bowsprit was a nose and a 
Rudder was a wart or excrescence! 

The old and popular definitions of "bowsprit" can 
be found in many slang dictionaries: 

Bowsprit. The nose, from its being the most projecting 
part of the human face, as the bowsprit is of a ship. 7 

Bowsprit, subs, (popular) - the nose. See Boltspirit. 
To have one's bowspirit in parenthesis is to have it 
pulled. 8 

The above definitions certainly prove that a "bow- 
sprit" was a nose. However, what of a "rudder"? For this 
more obscure information we must refer to The English 
Dialect Dictionary: 

Rudder, see Ridder, Rooder. 

The meaning of Ridder is the same as a "riddle", 
while under the heading of Rooder we find: 

Rooder, sb... Hence Roodery, (1) sb., (a) a covering of 
'rooder'; also a place so covered; (b) a wart or excres- 
cence resembling 'rooder' 
Cp. ON. hrudr, a crust, scab on a sore (Vigfusson) 

This last definition may need some explanation 
regarding the sources used in order to place it before 1 876, 
the date of publication of the Snark. It should be perhaps 
pointed out that the word originally came from Old Norse 
and that it was used in Shetland and Oarkneys prior to 1 866. 9 
Thus, Carroll, who was very interested in dialects through- 
out his life could have had access to this or other sources 
regarding all of the meanings necessary for formulating his 
"bowsprit-rudder" riddle. 

If, however, there are still some skeptics of my 
reading or of Carroll having meant the above riddle as a 
riddle, then it may prove useful to review other parts of the 
poem. It must be remembered that it is the Bellman who 
first recognizes the problem and offers an explanation for 
the mixing of the bowsprit and rudder. 

Then the bowsprit got mixed with the rudder sometimes: 

A thing, as the Bellman remarked, 
That frequently happens in tropical climes, 
When a vessel is, so to speak, "snarked." 

By keeping a medical reading in mind, the reader 
may note the ambiguity of the word Carroll used - "vessel" 
- and the explanation for his growing "rudder" (wart or ex- 
crescence) getting mixed with his "bowsprit" (nose) in hot 
"tropical climes". The excrescence or unsightly growth on 
the Bellman's "bowsprit" must have been very inflamed if 
the crew could mistake it for their captain's nose! 

Carroll's introductory quotation (at top) contin- 

I will not (as I might) point to the strong moral purpose 
of this poem itself, to the arithmetical principles so cau- 
tiously inculcated in it, or to its noble teachings in Natu- 
ral History - I will take the more prosaic course of sim- 
ply explaining how it happened. 

The Bellman, who was almost morbidly sensitive about 

After all that has been presented, the readers may 
mark the crucial importance of Carroll's use of language: 
"Natural History" (in this case the description of diseases), 
"snarked vessels", and "sensitivity about appearances", etc. 
In addition, the reader may consider that if this line — which 
Carroll points out is the one that appears as the most non- 
sensical — is understandable, then so might be, as he 
claimed, the rest of the poem and his other "nonsense" 
works. One could easily recall at this important juncture 
the Red Queen's statement '"You may call it "nonsense" if 
you like, but I've seen nonsense compared with which that 
would be as sensible as a dictionary.'" 

("That's exactly the method," the Bellman bold 

In a hasty parenthesis cried, 
"That's exactly the way I have always been told 
that the capture of snarks should be tried!") 

It is implied that the Bellman's "ruddery bowsprit" 
or warty nose would also find itself within parentheses. If 
the Bellman is so often found within parenthesis 10 , then the 
logical Carroll probably reasoned that so would his nose be 
thus enclosed! Thus, it appears that out of the whole crew, 
the Bellman would be the easiest target for nose pulling, 
which would aggravate his nasal inflammation and add to 
his morbid sensitivity regarding appearances. However, it 
does not appear that the Bellman was the only one who had 
his nose pulled in, or by, the poem. 

It is known that Carroll tried to publish The Hunt- 
ing of the Snark on April Fool's day: 

Dodgson told Macmillan's that he wanted the Snark to 
be advertised for publication on April 1st, 1876- 'Surely 
that is the fittest day for it to appear?' 1 1 

This type of tricky puzzle and clue, of course, is 
very much in character. Derek Hudson, in his 1978 biogra- 
phy, states: "The truth about Lewis Carroll is that he was 
always engaged in genially pulling somebody's leg." 12 On 
the other hand, Carroll's first biographer, Stuart Dodgson 
Collingwood, while recording an important entry in his 
uncle's diary, did not understand the potential or nature of 
what Carroll suggested: 

Most of his ideas were ingenious, though many were 
entirely useless from a practical point of view, for in- 
stance, he has an entry in his diary on Nov 8, 1872: "I 
wrote to Calverley, suggesting an idea (which I think 
occurred to me yesterday) of guessing well-known po- 
ems as acrostics and making a collection of them to hoax 
the public." 

With the above two insights into Carroll's charac- 
ter as a trickster, leg, and nose puller, let us see the impor- 
tance or "fitness" of his desiring to publish the Snark on 
April Fool's day. 

It was a common practice or custom in many parts 
of England and Scotland to send gullible people on April 
Fool's errands. In many of these places the name of this 
yearly joke was known as "hunting the gowk". The English 
Dialect Dictionary lists some of what was involved: 13 


Hunt, v. and sb... 1. v. In comb. (1) hunt-a-gowk, or - 

the-gowk, (a) a person sent on a fool's errand; also used 

attrib.; (b) a fool's errand; (c) to go on a fool's errand. 

(l,a)Sc. It wad look unco-like, I thoughtjusttobesentoutonahunt- 
the-gowk errand wi' aland-louperlikethat, Scott guy M. (1815) 

Given the above, it is not a stretch of the imagina- 
tion to suggest that the Snark is a type of massive fool's 
errand. This, however, does not prove that it is meaningless 
or "antimeaning" - the exact opposite appears to be the case! 
Lewis Carroll has, in my opinion, masterfully led a great 
many people (and particularly scholars) in his famous and 
humorous "hunt". It may perhaps also prove useful to re- 
member that April Fool's day was also known, during and 
prior to Carroll's epoch, as "All Fools' day". And this type 
of Carrollian All Fools' joke (in this case one in the form 
of a literary puzzle) resonates very well with what Michael 
Bakewell concluded in his recent biography: 14 

He was constantly devising problems for himself to 
solve. It was a way of giving occupation to a mind which 
could never be turned off, which could never stop itself 
thinking. It was also a way of imposing certainty and 
order on a disorderly world. Puzzles, games and conun- 
drums seemed to arrive virtually of their own, and with 
them he would entertain his child-friends or torment his 
fellow dons... He seems to have derived an almost sen- 
sual satisfaction from setting a problem to which he 
alone knew the correct solution. 

In my opinion, the Snark, instead of being the most 
nonsensical of Carroll's major works, may prove to be his 
most mature, "sensical", and coherent. Unlike the Alice 
books (meaningful books in their own right), the Snark ap- 
pears to be about one thing - the events surrounding the death 
of Carroll's nephew and godson, Charlie Wilcox. In this 
short article I have shown only a slice, albeit an important 
slice, of the creative and wily genius that went into the 
poem. 15 I hope that this will be enough to show that this 
famous poem is far from being the paradigmatic nonsense 
or "antimeaning" work as it is so often portrayed. The Snark 
was carefully crafted in the logical, "ultrarational", and "rage 
for order" manner which is seen in Carroll/Dodgson's char- 
acter and in his other works. 16 Finally, it seems that Carroll 
may have carried out the most intricate, longest running and 
greatest April Fools' joke, All Fools' joke or "hunting of 
the gowk" the world has ever seen! 

Let us hope that those who have been taken by this 
literary masterpiece have enough of a sense of humour to 
be able to appreciate the genius involved regarding the un- 
leashing of this complicated "gowk" in the vicinity of April 
First, 1876. On the other hand, it may be good to end on a 
positive note by being reminded of the spirit Carroll meant 
to give birth to and nurture. This, perhaps his greatest legacy, 
is clearly spelled out in a letter to Mary Newby: 17 

I find I have a duplicate ring-puzzle with me, and so beg 
for your acceptance of it. Don't be in too great a hurry 
to explain it to your friends! A state of puzzlement is 
good for the young, as it leads to a spirit of enquiry. 

1 hope that Carroll also meant the above wisdom 
to apply to the "young at heart" and that he would consider 
133 years long enough for "his friends" to puzzle over the 
meaning of The Hunting of the Snark. 


1 . It must be remembered that it was Carroll's godson's death which 
directly led to his writing the Snark. See Morton Cohen's article 
"Hark the Snark" in Lewis Carroll Observed (Clarkson N. Potter, 

2. The Easter Greeting speaks of "when my turn comes to walk 
through the valley of shadows", and "when angel-hands shall undraw 
your curtains...". 

3. For instance, one written for Marion Terry begins, "Maiden though 
thy heart may quail / And thy quivering lip grow pale, / Read the 
Bellman's tragic tale / Is it life of which it tells? / Of a pulse that sinks 
and swells / Never lacking a chime of bells?". 

4. T Sharper Knowlson, 1930 

5. Christina Hole, English Folklore, B. T. Batsford Ltd. 1 945. p. 58. 

6. The English Dialect Dictionary, The Times Book Club, 1898 - 
1905; p. 58 of volume IV. The actual information used in the EDD 
was taken from A. Benoni Evans, Leicester Words, Phrases, and 
Proverb, 1881. 

7. 1811 Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue' (Copied from France 
Grose, A Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue. London. 1785), 
Digest Books, Inc. 1971. 

8. J. S. Farmer, W. E. Henley, A Dictionary of Slang (originally 
published as Slang and its Analogues in 1890). Wordsworth Edi- 
tions Ltd. 1987. 

9. At least one of the sources "S&Ork.l refers to T Edmonston's 
An Etymological Glossary of the Shetland and Orkney Dialect 
published in 1866. 

10. Carroll used parentheses no less than 23 time in the text of the 
Snark. The Bellman is caught 6 times within them, which is more 
than all of the individual members of the crew put together. In addi- 
tion the word "parenthesis" is used only once within the poem - in the 
above stanza which is wholly between parentheses. The Bellman 
appears to be very aware of his precarious and at times painful situ- 
ation, as he "cried" to find himself for the fifth time in the poem 
surrounded by parentheses. 

11. Derek Hudson, Lewis Carroll: An Illustrated Biography. The 
New American Library. 1978. p. 182. 

12. ibid, p. 249 

13. The English Dialect Dictionary, p. 284 of volume III. 

14. Michael Bakewell, Lewis Carroll A Biography. London: Will- 
iam Heinemann Ltd. 1 996. pp. 42-43 . 

15. For a much longer and complete explanation of what the Snark 
means and for an identification of most of the important characters in 
the poem, see my upcoming article "The Hunting of the Snark: 
Decline and Nonsense" in The Carrollian. For a general outline of 
Carroll's method for writing his most famous "nonsense" see my 
"Lewis Carroll Finding the Philosopher's Stone" in the same journal, 
Volume 1, Spring 1998. 

16. I am here borrowing two insightful psychological descriptions 
used to refer to the character of this beloved and most famous writer 
of "nonsense". Elizabeth Sewell uses the term "ultrarationalist" while 
Donald Rackin tells us that Carroll had a "rage for order". 

1 7. The Letters of Lewis Carroll, Oxford University Press, 1 979, p. 


Dodgson's Curious Division Algorithms 

by James D. Harper, Department of Mathematics 
Central Washington University 
Ellensburg, Washington 

In 1897 Charles Dodgson published a letter (one 
of his last publications) in the British science journal Na- 
ture. In this letter, "Brief Method of Dividing a Given Num- 
ber by 9 or 11", Dodgson provides simple algorithms for 
finding the remainders and quotients when a given number 
is divided by either 9 or 11 {Pamphlets 2:298-301). While 
this letter has been noted, all the references that I have come 
across only mention his "discovery" of the divisibility/re- 
mainder rules (which had actually been known for a long 
time); with the exception of the recent Mathematical Pam- 
phlets, no mention is made concerning his apparently origi- 
nal quotient algorithms. 

In this note, I would like to describe Dodgson's 9- 
algorithm and follow it with an example illustrating the al- 
gorithm that Dodgson himself provided. This will be fol- 
lowed by some of his diary entries related to his discover- 
ies and, finally, a short historical note on the 9 and 1 1 divis- 
ibility rules. 
Dodgson 's 9-Quotient Algorithm 

It has often been observed that to find the remain- 
der when a number is divided by 9, first sum its digits to 
obtain a new number. Now sum the digits of this new num- 
ber, if necessary, repeating the process until you obtain a 
single digit number. If this number is 9, then the remainder 
is 0; otherwise the remainder is this single digit number. 
(This is the 9-remainder/divisibility rule.) 

Example 1. Consider 753096. 
7+5+3+0+9+6 = 30 
3+0 = 3. 
The remainder when 753096 is divided by 9 is 3. 

Example 2. Consider 583173. 
5+8+3+1+7+3 = 27 
2+7 = 9 

The remainder when 583 173 is divided by 9 is (there- 
fore 583173 is divisible by 9.) 

After Dodgson introduced this remainder/divisibil- 
ity rule, he went on to explain and illustrate his discovery 
of his 9-quotient algorithm. Dodgson's explanation of his 
quotient algorithm perplexed me for quite some time (and 
this may be why others have passed over it). In his letter he 

To find the 9-quotient, draw a line under the given num- 
ber and put its 9-remainder under its unit-digit: then sub- 
tract downwards, putting the remainder under the next 
digit and so on. {Pamphlets, 299) 

I pondered over his explanation and examples off 
and on for a couple of months until one morning my 11- 
year-old son Art asked what I was doing. I showed him 
Dodgson's letter and examples and, in less than 20 minutes, 

Art (seemingly exhibiting the mental affinity Dodgson had 
with children) explained the algorithm to me. (As Tom Lehrer 
once said: "It's so simple, so very simple, that only a child 
can do it.") Subtracting "downwards" meant subtracting up- 
side down and instead of borrowing {i.e., subtracting) 1 from 
the next digit of the larger number, you add 1 to the next 
digit of the smaller number. (I will call this "reverse bor- 

I will now use the first example that Dodgson pro- 
vides to illustrate this algorithm: Find the remainder and 
quotient when 753096 is divided by 9. 
Solution. As we have already seen from example 1 , the re- 
mainder is 3. The entire computation is provided below: 
7 5 3 9 6 

8 3 6 7 7 + 3 remainder 
i.e., 753096 = 9 * 83677 + 3 

Step 1. We cannot subtract 6 from 3, so we borrow a 1 in 
reverse from 9 to obtain 13-6 = 7. This difference, 7, is 
the one's digit in the quotient. 

Step 2. By reverse borrowing, we need to find 7 - (9 +1) = 
7-10. Since 10 is larger than 7, we need to borrow 1 in 
reverse from the next digit to the left of 9, namely 0. When 
we do this, we have: 17 - 10 = 7 is the ten's digit of our 

Step 3. The subtraction here is 7- (0 + 1) = 6 is the hundred's 
digit of our quotient. (No borrowing required here). 

Step 4. 6 - 3 = 3 is the thousand's digit. 

Step 5. As in steps 1 and 2, we need to borrow since 5 is 
larger than 3: 13 - 5 = 8 is the ten thousand's digit. 
The last subtraction, 8 - (7 + 1) = is as it should be. 

This subtraction algorithm may seem strange to- 
day, however it was the standard algorithm taught to school 
children a century ago. Permit me to illustrate with a simple 

5 6 1 
-3 7 4 

18 7 

Step 1 . Since 4 is larger than 1 , borrow in reverse from 7 to 
obtain 11-4 = 7. 

Step 2. Since (7 + 1) is larger than 6, borrow in reverse 
from 3: 16 -(7+ 1) = 8. 

Step 3. Our final subtraction is 5 -(3 + 1) = 1. 

Now if we turn the quotient-subtraction algorithm 
upside-down and then show it as a subtraction problem, it 
would look like this: 

8 3 6 7 7 3 
- 7 5 3 9 6 
8 3 6 7 7 
Diary Entries 

Dodgson kept an extensive diary relating his per- 
sonal and professional experiences. Below are a few ex- 
cerpts from his 1897 diary related to these discoveries. 


Sept. 27, Monday. Die notandus. Discovered a rule for 
dividing a number by mere addition and subtraction. I 
felt sure there must be an analogous one for 1 1 , and found 
it, and proved the first rule by Algebra, after working 
about nine hours! 

Sept. 28, Tuesday. Die creta notandus! I have actually 
superceded the rules discovered yesterday! My new 
rules require to ascertain the 9-remainder and the 11- 
remainder, which the others did not require; but the new 
ones are much the quickest. I shall send them to The 
Educational Times, with the date of discovery. 

Oct. 14, Thursday. Easbourne to Guildford. On my way I 
had a few minutes of the company of bright-looking girl 
of about 14, daughter of Betchworth Station-Master, and 
taught her my rule for dividing by nine. Her name is 
"Nellie Davis" {Diaries 539-540). 

A Little History 

The 9 and 11 remainder/divisibility rules that 
Dodgson describes in his letter to Nature are very old. In 
his History of the Theory of Numbers, L.E.Dickson men- 
tions several mathematicians who have discovered both of 
these rules. Indeed, the eminent medieval mathematician 
Leonardo de Pisa (a.k.a. Fibonacci) published them in his 
masterpiece Liber Abbaci of 1202. It is evident from his 
diary entries that Dodgson believed he was the first to dis- 
cover these rules. However, subsequent letters to the edi- 
tor of Nature pointed out that these (divisibility) rules had 
been previously published. In particular, a Mr. Otto Sonnne 
replied that these rules appeared "in a school book published 
at Copenhagen in 1 847" (qtd. in Pamphlets 2:298). Dodgson 
acknowledged these responses, especially Mr. Sonne's, and 
concluded that he was the first to publish these rules in 

Despite this, some ambiguity remains. It is unclear 
if these letter writers were referring to the divisibility / re- 
mainder rules or the quotient algorithms. Without further 
evidence and research, it will remain unknown whether 
Dodgson was the first to publish the quotient algorithms. 

Dickson, Leonard E. History of the Theory of Numbers, Washing- 
ton: Carnegie Foundation, 1919 -23; Chelsea, 1971 

Dodgson, CL. The Diaries of Lewis Carroll, ed. Roger Lancelyn 
Green; Oxford, 1954 

— . The Mathematical Pamphlets of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson 
and Related Pieces, Fran Abeles, ed., 1994, published by the Lewis 
Carroll Society of North America. 

[With appreciation to Fran Abeles for her editorial assistance...] 

"Jabberwocky", tr. M.M.Fayet, 1930 

II faisait grillant et les acteux toves 

Gyraient et vrillaient dans I'alloir. 
Tout legeux etaient les picpors, 

Et les dson raths sichoufflaient. 

"Le Jaseroque", tr. Frank Warrin, 1931 

II brilgue: les toves lubricilleux 

Se gyrent en vrillant dans le guave, 
Enmimes sont les goubebosqueux, 

Et le momerade horsgrave. 

"Jabberwocky", tr. Henriette Rouillard, 1935 

C'est brillig et les slithy toves 

Gyre et gimble dans le wabe 
Mimsy sont tous les borogoves 

Et les mome raths outgrabe. 

"Jabberwocky", tr. Jacques Brunius, 1944 

C'etait grilleure et les tauves glissagiles 
Gyraient sur la loinde et guimblaient; 

Les borogauves avaient Fair tout chetristes, 
Et fourgares les rathes vociflaient. 

"Jabberwocheux", tr. Henri Parisot, 1946 

II etait reveneure; les slictueux toves 

Sur I'allouinde gyraient et vriblaient; 
Tout flivoreux etaient les borogoves 

Les verchons fourgus bourniflaient. 

"Le Berdouilleux", tr. Andre Bay, 1975 

It etait ardille et les glisseux torves 

Gyraient et gamblaient sur la plade. 
Tout dodegoutants etaient les borororves 

Les chonverts grougroussaient la nomade. 

"Berjavok", tr. Philippe Rouard, 1984 

Grazil approchait, et les zarbouches limacieuses 
Tournisquaient et scrillaient sur I'allecandreuse; 

Les minces plumayettes flutaient 
Et les sangaverts egardus snifrognaient. 

"Tentative anti-grammaticale contre Lewis Carroll", 
Antonin Artaud, 1948 

II etait Roparant, et les vliqueux tarands 
Allaient en gibroyant et en brimbulkdriquant 

J usque-la ou la rourghe est a rouarghe a rangmbde 

et rangmbde a rouarghambde: 
Tous le falomitards Etaient les chats-huants 

Et les Ghore Uk'hatis dans le GRABUGEUMENT. 


A Man of Letters 

Twenty-six letters: selected letters of Lewis Carroll 

Linda K. Johnson, Pompano Beach: A2Z Press, 1998 

This 1998 Florida Artists' Book Prize-winner is a 
delight: the double meaning of the title is quite intentional, 
as the book consists of twenty-six "pages" which are actu- 
ally envelopes containing letters (epistles) written by Lewis 
Carroll, selected for their charm and wordplay but most im- 
portantly because they began with the right (alphabetical) 
letter: "My dear Alice,"; "My dear Beatrice; "My dear Chris- 
tie," etc. The letters are among the most playful Carroll 
wrote: containing stories, riddles, rebuses, acrostics, back- 
wards writing and so on. Each of the letters of the alphabet 
is also illustrated by a character found in his writings. 

Laserjet printed onto handmade papers, inserted 

into lined envelopes; covered and boxed in Momi calfskin. 

Only one of the edition often is still available. $300 

from Linda Johnson at Ljohnson@; 1 .954.942.4766; 

2485 SE 5th St. #1, Pompano Beach FL 33062. 

Toys R U? 

The treasure below was sighted at the Antiquarian 
Bookfair in San Francisco last February. It is described as 
"a magnificent and virtually complete set of 28 superbly 
hand-painted, hand-cut fully-articulated figures represent- 
ing characters from AW and TTLG. This set has a single prov- 
enance, one family which purchased it from Talfourd Toys 
of Reigate, in Surrey, sometime in 1 93 1 (a letter from the 
owner is included). The designs originate from the 1920s 
and far exceed in quality any vintage Alice toys we have seen. 
The original Talfourd Toys price list is included and all crea- 
tures great and small are accounted for, with the exception 
of the White King. However, four additonal characters, later 
designs, are present." Price on request, from Lakin and Mar- 

ley Rare Books, P.O.Box 1209, Mill Valley CA 94942. 
1.415.388.4545 or ~ 4546 fax. (Do get on the mailing list!) 

How Doth the Little Crocodile 

The extraordinarily talented composer, Cantor, and 
Heldentenor Gary Bachlund is working, with collaborator 
Marilyn Barnett of Berlin's Staatsoper Unter den Linden, 
on a full-length opera of Alice in Wonderland. From what 
selections I have heard, it is quite tuneful and charming, as 
if composed at the turn of the last century, not this one. He 
has promised to address the Society at some future date, 
and will keep us informed of its progress via the Knight 
Letter. He writes: 

I am sending you a single sheet with the short setting of 
"The Little Crocodile" [opposite]. Roger Bourland, 
whose company — Yelton Rhodes — publishes the set 
of songs which will all find their way into opera, has 
given his permission for this, so when you've space in 
your journal, 'tis your editorial choice how and when to 
include it. The Yelton Rhodes website is www. YRMusic. 
com and their phone is 1.888.4YRMusic, if you want to 
know the other songs in the set of nine, already pub- 
lished. They were originally written in 1994, and I ex- 
pect the whole opera to be ready in 12-18 months, God 
willing and the creeks don't rise. Alice has grown to over 
an hour's worth of score for the first act in Wonderland, 
and over thirty-five minutes for Act Two's Looking- 
Glass. All in first draft, of course. I suspect that repre- 
sents about 3 /is of the entire score when it will be com- 
pleted. If you get any nice responses, perhaps we might 
do another later? Or some sort of progress report on 
libretto carving-out of the texts? Or such? All best, 



I ,ewis Carroll 




The Little Crocodile 

molto legato 

Gary Bachlund 


*r r i 

How doth 
How cheer 



the ht - de 
ful - ly he 

cro - co- dile 
seems to grin, 


im - 




LT J "*T r 


r r CJJ r r 



# — m — ,-N — 


# * 






his shin - ing tail, 

ly spreads his claws, 

and pour 

and wel 

the wa - ters 

comes lit - tie 



exit a 







r r r p ' r 



the Nile 

es in 

on ev 

with gent 



en scale! 

ling jaws! 



J ' "■ r r 











mo/to ritardando 









Copyright © by Yelton Rhodes Music All international rights reserved. 
Unauthorized copying of this music in any manner violates the Federal Copyright Law. 



Rina Litvin-Biberman's translation of TTLG into 
Hebrew (see KL 59, p. 10) can be ordered for $23 including 
postage from Hakibbutz Hameuchad Publishers, P.O.B. 
1432, Bnei Brak 51114, Israel. +972.3.5785810 (phone); 
-5811 fax. 

Quando Alice incontrd Pinocchio (ed. Pompeo 
Vagliani), a survey of Italian translations of the Alice books 
from 1872 to 1960, published by Trauben Editore Torino 
(see KL 59, p. 19) can be ordered from Anna Battaglia,; Trauben Editore 
Torino, Via Plana 1, 10123 Torino, Italy. Fax +39.11. 

Up Close and Personal 

Octavo, a company which publishes "elegant, 
searchable, printable, magnifiable renderings of first edi- 
tions" onto CD-ROM is planning an A W soon, with intro- 
ductory essays, commentary and an "impressive grouping 
of Tenniel and Dodgson collateral material". You can mag- 
nify the page up to 8 times without losing any resolution. 

Pressing Matters 

Our prolific Charles Lovett's Lewis Carroll and 
The Press, an annotated bibliography of all CLD's contri- 
butions to periodicals, is now available from Oak Knoll 
Press. Here is their summary: 

"Tall 8vo., cloth, dust jacket. 135 pages, $35. This com- 
prehensive new work not only provides bibliographical 
details lacking from previous studies, it describes 
Dodgson's letters, articles, games, mathematical prob- 
lems, and stories in such a way that the scholar without 
access to these rare items will gain an understanding of 
where Dodgson stood on various subjects and the na- 
ture of his relationship with the public via the press. 
Previously unknown Dodgson items are brought to light 
in this listing, and numerous early reprints are recorded 
for the first time. Dodgson's word puzzles "Doublets" 
and "Syzgies," which were published on a continuing 
basis in Vanity Fair and The Lady, are fully described 
for the first time, and dozens of previously unknown 
Doublets and Syzygies are reprinted. Lovett's introduc- 
tory essay discusses Dodgson's career as both a reader 
of periodicals and a contributor to them, and quotes ex- 
tensively from one of the "lost" periodical contributions 
- Dodgson material which has not been reprinted. Its 
wealth of new material and full and proper description 
of what has so often been neglected in the past make 
Lewis Carroll and The Press an invaluable reference 

for librarians, scholars, students, 
professors, collectors, and booksell- 
ers."; oakknoll; 800.996.2556; 
302.328.7232 or -7274 fax; 310 
Delaware Street, New Castle DE 19720. 

Suit Your Shelf 

According to the Third Edition of Children 's Lit- 
erature Awards and Winners: A Directory of Prizes, Au- 
thors, and Illustrators by Dolores Blythe Jones (Neal- 
Schuman / Gale Research, 1994, 0-8103-6900-1), the 
"Lewis Carroll Shelf Award" was given annually to titles 
"which possessed enough of the qualities of AW to enable 
them to sit on the same book shelf. Originated by Dr. David 
C. Davis in 1958, a five-member committee awarded be- 
tween three and twenty titles each year the "Gold Cheshire 
Cat Seal" at the Wisconsin Book Conference. The titles were 
not necessarily published in that year, but represented the 
best of the past as well. Due to Dr. Davis' disability, the 
award was discontinued in 1979. The choices seem gener- 
ally well-thought, and the criteria were: "imagination and 
plausibility; genuine emotion; consistent characters; plau- 
sible events (even in fantasy form); and a plot that unfolds 
gently and logically". 


"I propose to analyze Carroll's texts as an eccen- 
tric form of literary communication, a communication 
which celebrates the excess that literary language is able to 
produce in relation to a signified imaginary world, a narra- 
tive of 'mere nonsense'. This reading will explore the cul- 
tural function of literary nonsense within the larger frame- 
work of an 'ecology of mind and language', by folding the 
delirious space of nonsense back upon the 'potential spaces' 
that it dynamically mobilizes in the reader: the dream and 
logic. I will end with a playful construction of a 'culture 
contact' between two imaginary worlds that share a delight 
in the effects of surfaces: Victorian nonsense and 
postmodernism. If we filter our most cherished (theoreti- 
cal?) constructions of postmodernity — schizophrenia and 
simulacrum — through Carroll's looking-glass of nonsense, 
we might perhaps discover a tacit complicity of these cat- 
egories with a tradition of thinking in terms of mimetic rep- 
resentation that we otherwise claim to have abandoned." 
- Gabriele Schwab. "Nonsense and metacommunication: Re- 
flections on Lewis Carroll" in The Play of the Self, edited 
by Ronald Bogue and Mihai I. Spariosu, SUNY Series: "The 
Margins of Literature". State University of New York Press, 



The Hallmark of Banality 

There was a small assortment of silver linings in 
the Hallmark / NBC production of Alice in Wonderland 
which was broadcast on February 28th. First, Carroll's ev- 
erlasting popularity was demonstrated in the market share, 
which was (to begin with) this season's highest rated TV 
movie, drawing in five million optimistic viewers - although 
few of those watching lasted to the end of a program the 
prolix profligacy and promiscuous prolificacy of whose 
advertising revealed it for what it really was: a three-hour 
infomercial for the two-hour commercial-free videotape 
to be released simultaneously. Others fell asleep out of 
boredom or because this "child-oriented" presentation lasted 
until 1 1 p.m. on a school night. Second, there was a surpris- 
ingly rather informative article in TVGuide (Feb 27 - March 
5) quoting Stephanie at length. The third redeeming thing 
was the large SFX (special effects) budget, which did pro- 
vide some seamless morphing and occasionally rose to bril- 
liance, such as the Escher-inspired caucus race (that scene 
lasting three seconds), but was in the main unimaginatively 
deployed. The rest, as their "Mr. Mouse" was heard to say, 
was "a most depressing venue". 

Take a dour, pudgy, unattractive Southern Califor- 
nia adolescent who, at fourteen, is the right age for teenage 
angst movies and way over the hill for Alice (and whose 
latest movie was the watershed " Waterworld" - and who has 
been in several failed TV shows) 1 and paste on a British 
accent; add a gratuitous frame story about her reluctance to 
sing a ditty called "Cherry Ripe"; rip off the characters-who- 
become-characters scene from The Wizard of Oz\ add 
Hallmark's traditional Muzak soundtrack and signature 
insipidness; take away most of Carroll's graceful dialog and 
replace it with furballs coughed up by some Hollywood hack; 
throw in unwarranted musical numbers like "Auntie's 
Wooden Leg" sung as a Minstrel show; enucleate all magic 
and eviscerate the sense of Adventure, replacing it with what 
looked like a disinterested viewer (Alice) channel-surfing 
through a series of tableaux; toss in a few cameos by Holly- 
wood Movie Stars intent on engulfing the scenery in large 
chunks; put it all together with sophomoric, not to say so- 
porific, direction and what do you get? 

"A tedious, shapeless blob" - Phil Kloer, Atlanta 
Journal / Constitution. 

"Pretty set pieces that are never engaging" - Caryn 
James, New York Times. 

"A grueling acid trip left over from "The '60's" but 
one whose rainbow of special effects does grow monoto- 
nous after a bit." - Howard Rosenberg, Los Angeles Times. 

If all this has not dissuaded you or you are a 
completist, a package including a book is (surprise!) con- 
veniently available at the NBC website (see "Leaves", p. 22) 
and the production is now in VHS and DVD formats at your 
local video shop. 

"Sheer stupidity" - the aforementioned Mr. Mouse. 

From our members: 

"Last night I was at a little get-together and I over- 
heard some people talking about whether or not they would 
let their children stay up to see it. "But is he familiar with 
the story?" asked one lady about another's tot. "Oh yes, we 
have the cartoon," was the blithe response, while I did some 
tooth-grinding and my husband kicked me because it was 
audible." - Cindy Watter 

"I thought it was awful! The humor of Alice, which 
has delighted people for 130 years was not good enough 
for the TV writers. Instead, they made what they considered 
"improvements" in the characters' speeches, wiping out the 
humor. . .The book itself presents the story on its own terms. 
The TV adaptation "framed" the story as behavior modifica- 
tion therapy, for Alice's improvement. - Lucille Posner 

1 . In fairness, I believe Miss Marjorino to be a talented actress, just woefully 
miscast here. 

Losing Their Marbles 

Answer to Challenge (p. 5): Puccini's most 
popular opera, La boheme, shares a title with 
Michael Balfe's 1843 opera The Bohemian 
Girl, words by Alfred Bunn, which contained 
what became a very popular romantic song, 
"I Dreamt that I Dwelt in Marble Halls". 
Lewis Carroll's satire of it, "I dreamt I 
dwelt in marble halls, / And each damp thing 
that creeps and crawls / Went wobble-wobble 
on the walls..." was published in Lays of 
Mystery, Imagination, and Humour in 
1855. Next, in the short story "Clay" in 
James Joyce's Dubliners (1914), Maria 
performs that song, mistakenly singing the 
first verse twice instead of an interior verse, 
a key to the meaning of the story. The line 
"he dreamed that he'd wealthes in mormon 
halls" additionally appears in Joyce's 
Finnegans Wake (1939). The Bohemian 
Girl itself was made into a movie in 1936, 
produced by Hal Roach, starring Laurel & 
Hardy and in which the duo sing the ballad. 
Many others have performed or recorded it 
since, including Irish pop singer Enya in her 
1991 album Shepherd Moons. 


From Dor rat c -fioM$' 


On Reflection by Jonathan Miller (Na- 
tional Gallery/Yale University, $40) 
offers an erudite, lively tour through 
art history, optics and cognitive psy- 
chology, including the moment when 
Alice steps through the looking-glass. 
"What the author conveniently forgets 
to mention is the perplexing and indeed 
indescribable shemozzle that would 
have occurred when Alice met herself 
coming in the opposite direction. 

Martin Gardner's The Night is Large: 
Collected Essays 1938 - 1995 includes 
"LC and his Alice Books", the intro to 
his Annotated Alice, with some recent 
corrections. St. Martin's Press, 1997; 

Dodgson at Auction, 1893 - 1998 by 
David Carlson and Jeffrey Eger dis- 
plays over three thousand citations of 
chronologically arranged and cross- 
indexed auction records. Charlie 
Lovett provides an introduction. 400 
pp, $75. To be published this fall, but 
orders are now being accepted: D&D 
Galleries, Box 8413, Somerville NJ 
08876;;; 908.874.5195 


In the course of some research, Ruth 
Berman ran across an AW "continua- 
tion" where Alice goes "to New York 
in a bubble" in the New York Tribune, 
11/22/1914, Section 3, p. 12. 

Also recently unearthed by August: 
"The Mathematic References to the 
Adoption of the Gregorian Calendar in 
LC's A W by Lawrence Dreyer, Ameri- 
can Notes & Quotes, vol. XIX nos. 3 
and4(Nov/Dec 1980). 

Ui AW Syndrome and Lilliputian Hallu- 
cinations in a Patient with a Substance- 
Related Disorder" by Takaoka and 
Takata in Psychopatholgy, Vol.32 
No. 1 , Jan-Feb '99. Cough syrup causes 

"Innocent or Not So? The Shifting Vi- 
sions of Childhood" by Sarah Bayliss 
(New York Times, 14 March 1999) is a 
fine look at the paradigms with which 
Western civilization has looked at 
childhood, with references to four cur- 


rent museum shows featuring such im- 
ages, CLD's prominent among them. 

"LC: A Tangled Tale" in The Croquet 
Gazette (U.K), Issue 260, March 1999 
explores CLD's involvement with the 
game, including his four rather obscure 
pamphlets and their variants. 


"Jazz Jackrabbit 2", a computer game, 
is described as an "AW universe" in 
which Jazz the rabbit must defeat an evil 
turtle to save bunnydom, while encoun- 
tering the Caterpillar and the Cheshire 
Cat, among others. PC version by Epic 
Games, Mac version by Logic Ware. 
"All ages". 

Lewis Carroll has been posthumously 
awarded the "Pullet Surprize" by "Men- 
tal Soup" at 
alice/main.html has a picture gallery, 
games, interviews, and an opportunity 
to purchase a package ($37) consist- 
ing of the NBC broadcast video and a 
Hallmark Entertainment hardback of 
the two works, replete with color stills 
from the production. 

Everything you ever wanted to know 
about the dodo but were afraid to ask 
can be found at http://www.davidreilly. 
com/dodo/, a site which includes an 
image library and links. 

The Ransom Center's marvelous "Re- 
flections in a Looking Glass" exhibi- 
tion (see KL#59, p. 15) is now online 
lcl.htm. Further details on the exhibi- 
tion schedule are below. 

A new entry in the "Urban Legends" 
reference page takes on the old canard 
about CLD sending Her Majesty Queen 
Victoria a copy of his mathematical 

Pictures of a collection of dozens of 
Alice dolls: http://www.aliceinwonder 


The 3-D rendering software called 
"Alice" described by Jonathan Handel 
(KL 56, p. 16) is now available at 


A handwritten, illustrated book of ex- 
cerpts from Alice with calligraphy by 
Dorsey Alexander and illustrations by 
his wife, Joyce, in a limited edition 
(200) is available through the (Mock) 
Turtle's Quill Scriptorium, P.O. Box 
643, Mendocino, CA 95460. 

AW Stained Glass Coloring Book 
(4"x5!/2"), published by Dover Little 
Activity Books ($1) 048640305X. 

An adaptation of AW is read by Susan 
Jameson and James Saxon on Penguin 
Audio books. 0140862196. $11. 

Alice's Welsh Wonderland, a pamphlet 
by Ivor Wynne Jones is "a guided tour 
in the North Wales footsteps of Alice 
Liddell" (where the Liddells often 
spent their holidays). Copies are avail- 
able for six U.S.$ (cash, not checks) 
from the author at Pegasus, 71 
Llandudno Road, Penrhyn Bay, 
Llandudno LL30 3HN, North Wales. 
+01492 549319. The L.C.S. (U.K.) 
will be meeting in Llandudno this June. 

Disney has added a series of Alice char- 
acters to their line of "Beanie Baby"- 
type toys. There's an Alice, a Queen of 
Hearts, a Hatter, a Cheshire Cat, a pair 
of Tweedles attached at the hip, and 
maybe some more. "They lack charm" 
- Stephanie, who also reports that the 
Madame Alexander series of "unbear- 
ably cute" Alice dolls now includes a 
dormouse that is half-in and half-out 
of a tea pot. You can order any of their 
nine AW dolls (circa $80 - 100 each) 
from their 75th Anniversary catalog at 
75A1998Storyland.html. or from the 
Alexander Doll Company, Inc., 615 
West 131st Street, New York, NY 

Sculptress Janys Stubbs has created 24 
works for an "Alice in Wonderland" 
scene that is now owned by The Minia- 
ture Museum of Taiwan (http:// tw/mmot/mmot.html). She has 
some of the individually-crafted pieces 

for sale, and will do commissions. You 
can see her work at http:www.; or P.O. Box 32, 
McLean, Tx. 79057; 806.779.2169. 

Tiny metal AW figurines from 
Comstock Company, 190 Sawyer 
Drive, P.O.Box 2715, Durango CO 
81302; 800.844.9006 or 970.247. 
3407 fax. 

Large hand-cast concrete AW garden 
sculptures (e.g. Alice is 26" high, 
$140) from the "Signals" catalog, 

/Iff tree ornaments, shirts, computer 
toppers, photo frames and bean bag 
dolls from "What on Earth". 

A paperweight of Tenniel's Gryphon 
exquisitely rendered by David Lawence 
($30) from "Design Toscano". 

A Limoges porcelain box of the White 
Rabbit ($170) from "Ross-Simons" 

Gladys Boalt's lovely AW soft sculp- 
ture ornaments (38 characters, ranging 
from $25 - $63), a superb quilt 
($1,350) and pillows ($50) from "The 
Gazebo" 800.998.7077.; thegazebo 
@worldnet.; www.TheGazebo. 

A "blank book" featuring Barry Moser's 
Queen of Hearts on the cover, $ 1 from 

On April 10th at a meeting of the NJ 
section of the Mathematical Associa- 
tion of America at The College of New 
Jersey in Trenton, Diana M.Thomas and 
Michael A. Jones delivered a talk en- 
titled "A Mathematical Examination of 
a Voting Procedure by Charles 
Dodgson (a.k.a. Lewis Carroll). 

Washington University (in St. Louis, 
MO) includes "Topics in Theatre: Stag- 
ing AW' as Drama 321 this semester. 

"The Hunting of the Quark", a lecture 
by Professor Michael Riordan of 
Stanford, April 29, 1999 at the Univer- 
sity of San Francisco Physics 
Colloquium Series. 


Forty artisans worked for a full year 

creating Dayton's-Bachman's 35th An- 
nual Spring Flower Show (3/20-4/3/99) 
in Minneapolis, animating Tenniel's il- 
lustrations with 20,000 bulbs in over 
100 varieties of plants, covering 12,000 
square feet of landscaped beds, and 
viewed by 100,000 souls. 

AnonSalon's "Mad Hatter's April Fools 
Ball" (4/2/99) in San Francisco fea- 
tured "Incredibly Strange Clown Wres- 
tling" and costumed performers, the 
printable ones being the Queen of 
Heartache and the White Rabid. 

A new exhibit of Alice related artwork 
by Boston area artists will be showing 
at "Tea- Tray in the Sky" in Cambridge, 
MA from May 10th. 617.492.8327. 

Much muchness at the Antiquarian 
Bookfair in San Francisco in February. 
Two stood out: the toy set portrayed 
on p. 18, and the original Ralph Stead- 
man drawing for p. 110-111 of his TTLG 
which features a great caricature of 
Carroll. This is the only original draw- 
ing known to exist outside of Mr. 
Steadman's personal collection, and 
was on sale by Books of Wonder in New 
York for $12,000. 

More details are in on the "Reflections 
in a Looking Glass" exhibition (above). 
It will be at the Fresno Metropolitan 
Museum, Fresno, CA from 13 Septem- 
ber - 28 November 1999; at the Day- 
ton Art Institute, Dayton, OH from 22 
April - 4 June, 2000; and the Ackland 
Museum, University of North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill, 10 September - 9 Octo- 
ber, 2000. 

"Butterflies in Wonderland", the annual 
butterfly show, at the Krohn Conser- 
vatory in Cinncinnati, 4/21-6/20/99, 
integrates AW with lepidoptery and ani- 
mals from the Zoo. www.cinci-; 1.515.321.4080. 

"Julia Margaret Cameron's Women" at 
MOMA, whose emblem was a portrait 
of APL, closed, ironically, on May 4 th . 

The Neukollner Oper of Berlin pre- 
sented a prizewinning avant-garde 
"chamber opera" adaptation of AW by 
Hanno Siepmann and Holger Siemann. 

The Rosenbach Library in Philadelphia 
is exhibiting selections from their 
holdings of drawings by Philadelphian 
A.B.Frost for Rhyme? and Reason? 

and letters from CLD to him, 6/22 - 
7/31 and 9/14 - 26. 1.215.972.7608. 

AW in Czech puppet style in Atlanta, 
15 April - 12 June at the Center for 
Puppetry Arts. 

The Saison Anglaise at the Musee 
d'Orsay in Paris included Lewis 
Carroll photographe (2 March - 6 
June) and Tableaux vivants. Fantasies 
photographiques victoriennes (1840- 
1880). The former show consisted in 
the main of modern prints struck from 
negatives in their collection, mostly of 
the Kitchin and Terry families frolick- 
ing at Henry Holliday's house circa 
1875; the latter show is a fascinating 
look at the genre of posed, costumed 
photography then in vogue, and of 
which CLD was an undoubted master. 

Anyone who missed Maria Bodmann's 
delightful Balinese shadow-puppet pre- 
sentation at our Fall meeting (KL 59, 
p. 15) will have another chance to see 
it! "Alice in the Shadows" will be pre- 
sented on Saturday, October 23rd at 
about 8 p.m., outdoors under the stars 
on the Thorne Hall Patio of Occiden- 
tal College in Los Angeles. 954.942. 
4766 or 818.768.7696. 

"Visions of Childhood" photographic 
exhibition including works by CLD and 
J.M.Cameron at the Snug Harbor 
(Staten Island) Culture Center through 
3 October. 718.448.2500 x 258. 

Movies & Video 

Gary Brockman suggests that "the 
many overt and subtle references to the 
Alice books in the film The Matrix 
should not go unremarked." 

The "Great Books" Video Set ($100) 
from The Learning Channel's series in- 
cludes "AW, fanciful tale or sinister 
musing?". This is the one mixing fine 
commentary by LCS and LCSNA mem- 
bers and scholars with meshuggenah 
ravings from Grace Slick, who has evi- 
dently been "feeding her head" too 
much, and clearly has never read the 
book. Available from The Discover 
Channel's catalog, 1.800.207.5775. 

Didja Know? 

Albert Anastasia (1903 -1957), the 
bloodthirsty "Lord High Executioner" 
of Murder, Inc. was nicknamed "The 
Mad Hatter". 


Membership / Order Form Name 

Membership: □ New or □ Renewal Address 

□ Regular ($20) 

□ Contributing ($50) __ 

□ Change of Address 

□ Publication Order E-mail . 

Publications : 

□ Snark illustrated by Dixon / members $10, others $15 □ 

□ Proceedings of the 2nd International LC Conference I members $10, others $15 □, deluxe $50 □ 

□ Mathematical pamphlets I members $52, others $58 □ 

□ In Memoriam (CLD's obituaries) / members $10, others $15 □ 

□ Knight Letters, $2 each, Numbers: 

□ Grolier exhibit catalog "CLD, alias LC" / members $15, others 20 □ 

□ LC & the Kitchins, $5 

□ LC: An Annotated International Bibliography (ed. Guiliano), $5 

□ Kaufman n Snark $75 

Further details on these publications are in KL 57, p. 19, or are available from the secretary. Please 
photocopy this form & send it along with a check to The Secretary, LCSNA.18 Fitzharding Place, 
Owing Mills MD 21117. Prices include tax and postage. 

Front Cover: George Walker's illustration of the Tweedle brothers from his TTLG, Cheshire Cat 
Press, 1998, as is the above. Ordering details are in KL 58, p. 18. 

For help in preparing this issue thanks are due to: Earl Abbe, Fran Abeles, Randy Baca, Ruth Berman, Sandor Burstein, 
Llisa Demetrios Burstein, Johanna Hurwits, August Imholtz, Julian Landa, Lucille Posner, Sandra Parker Provenzano, 
Horst Muggenburg, Bea Sidaway, Stephanie Stoffel, and Alan Tannenbaum. 

Knight Letter is the official newsletter of the Lewis Carroll Society of North America. It is published several times 
a year and is distributed free to all members. Subscriptions, business correspondence, and inquiries should be ad- 
dressed to the Secretary, 18 Fitzharding Place, Owing Mills MD 21117. Annual membership dues are U.S. $20 
(regular) and $50 (sustaining). Submissions and editorial correspondence should be sent to the Editor, Box 2006, 
Mill Valley CA 94942. 

President: Stephanie Stoffel, Secretary: Ellie Luchinsky, 

Editor: Mark Burstein, 
Lewis Carroll Society of North America Home Page: